First person to use this name on MO: Michael Wood
Name: Inocybe multifolia f. multifolia
Author: Braaten, M.G. Wood, & Matheny
Citation: Botany 92(1): 11.
Inocybe multifolia f. multifolia Braaten, M.G. Wood, & Matheny sp. nov.
MYCOBANK NUMBER: 804817
DIAGNOSIS: Similar to I. fuscidula, I. griseovelata, and Inocybe griseotarda Poirier. Inocybe multifolia differs from these species by longer spores and geographic distribution in northern California and by forming a distinct monophyletic group apart from these other three species.
TYPUS: United States of America. California: near Sierra City and Bassets Station at Green Acres off Highway 49, on soil under high-elevation conifers, fruiting after snowmelt, elev. 1700 m, 39°37’5.31"N, 120°35’32.38"W, 8-Jun-2010, coll. A.W. Wilson & M.G. Wood MGW784 (TENN 065795, holotype). GenBank DNA sequence accession No. KC335526.
ETYMOLOGY: (L.) multi- many, -folia, lamellae, in reference to the phenotypic plasticity of the lamellae.
DESCRIPTION: Pileus: 17–23 mm wide, broadly convex to nearly plane with a wide obtuse umbo, margin decurved but straight to weakly uplifted with age; surface with extensive velipellis, dry, entire, nowhere scaly; whitish mixed with warm brown or “Cinnamon Brown” ground color; context not changing color upon exposure, odor weakly spermatic. Lamellae: adnexed to sinuate, close to almost crowded, 45–55 L, “Wood Brown” to “Avellaneous” or pale brown to grayish-brown with a vinaceous or pinkish tint, not broad; edges not distinctly pallid or fimbriate. Stipe: 35–45 mm × 5–8 mm wide at the apex, terete, 10–12 mm wide at the enlarged to conjoined base; partial veil not directly observed but presumed fugacious, surface dry, indistinctly furfuraceous–pruinose at the apex, elsewhere finely fibrillose with scattered stringy fibrils above the stipe base; color dull whitish to dull olive-buff, white near the base where covered with soil.
Spores: 10.0–12.0 µm × 5.0–6.5 µm, mean 11.2 µm × 5.7 µm (n = 23/1), Q: 1.77–2.21 (–2.30), mean Q: 1.97, smooth, amygdaliform with pointed apices, somewhat thick-walled, yellowish-brown with small but prominent apiculus. Basidia: 29–36 µm × 8–10 µm, clavate, hyaline, 4-sterigmate but 2- and 1-sterigmate forms also observed. Pleurocystidia: 62–96 µm × 12–17 µm, mostly slenderly fusiform, occasionally subcylindric; apices obtuse, less often swollen or indistinctly subcapitate, at times bearing crystals; thinwalled to slightly thick-walled, walls at most up to 2.0 µm thick, hyaline. Cheilocystidia: similar to pleurocystidia but scattered along the lamellar edges, mixed with paracystidia. Caulocystidia: restricted to extreme stipe apex, sparse, more or less similar to cheilocystidia; thin-walled to slightly thick-walled, hyaline. Pileipellis: a compact interwoven layer of hyaline and cylidnric hyphae, these smooth, thin-walled, mostly 5–12 µmwide, overlaying a light golden brown pigmented layer composed of hyphae similar to above, these not noticeably incrusted. Clamp connections: present.
ECOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION: On soil after snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada, California, occurring in early June.
COMMENTS: Inocybe multifolia is most closely related to a small ensemble of species that includes I. fuscidula, I. aff. fuscidula (an arctic lineage), and I. griseotarda (Fig. 2). Inocybe fuscidula appears to be a widespread species in Europe and east Asia based on our phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences. Sequences of this species have yet to be confirmed from North America. Inocybe multifolia does indeed resemble forms of I. fuscidula, which are marked by a distinct velipellis imparting a dirty whitish to yellowish brown pileus color as described by Kuyper (1986) and depicted by Stangl (1989). Kuyper and Stangl, however, both describe and illustrate spores that are shorter (7.5–10.5 µm × 4.5–6.0 µm) and with less pronounced pointed apices. Inocybe aff. fuscidula represents a distinct evolutionary lineage of an arctic North American taxon known only from environmental ITS sequences of Dryas Hübner and Salix L. root systems (as I. fuscidula; Timling et al. 2012). Sequences produced by Timling et al. (2012) form a distinct clade apart from European–Asian I. fuscidula. The sole and unpublished sequence labeled I. griseotarda in Fig. 2 stems from a barcoding initiative of the Venice Museum fungal collection (Osmundson et al. 2013). Based on the protologue (Poirier 2002), this species is morphologically very similar to I. multifolia. It appears to differ from I. multifolia by the rose-tinted stipe, occurrence on calcareous ground under Pinus L. in central and southern Europe, and ITS genetic differences. A sequence of I. fuscidula var. bisporigera Kuyper is indicated as distantly related to I. multifolia (Fig. 1). Thus, I. fuscidula does not appear to represent a monophyletic species. Inocybe fuscidula var. bisporigera is reported to occur under hardwoods and is known only from England and Denmark (Kuyper 1986), though it may also occur in Spain as suggested by Esteve-Raventós (1998).
Inocybe multifolia is a new species of the mountain spring flora in California as the type was collected after snowmelt in early June. However, the secotioid form of this species (f. cryptophylla, described below) was collected in a residential area less than a mile from the Pacific Ocean, buried in damp, grassy ground adjacent to native, mixed-conifer forest, with only the cap exposed, in Mendocino, California, in early December.
Created: 2014-05-28 13:07:56 PDT (-0700) by Michael Wood (mykoweb)
Last modified: 2014-05-28 13:07:56 PDT (-0700) by Michael Wood (mykoweb)
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