Name: Chroogomphus vinicolor
Author: (Peck) O.K. Mill.
Citation: Mycologia 56(4): 536 (1964)
Deprecated Synonym(s): Chroogomphus vinicolor subsp. californicus (Singer) Singer, Croogomphus vinicolor
From O.K. Miller’s monograph:
“Pileus 1-8(-12) cm broad, obtuse to convex, in age turbinate to subumbonate, glabrous at first, viscid, marginal area in some obscurely appressed fibrillose, squamulose in age, orange-red, dingy orange-ochraceous, darkening overall to dark yellow-brown “Saccardo’s umber” to “bister.” Context orange in buttons to very pale buff “pale ochraceous-buff” or pale salmon with an “ochraceous salmon” flush over the disk in age. Odor and taste not distinctive. Lamellae subdistant to distant, decurrent, broad, pale dingy ochraceous, dingy orange ,ochraceous, buff or concolorous with the cap, clouded smoky brown with spores in age.
Stipe 5-10 cm long, 0.6-2(-6) cm wide narrowing downward, pale ochraceous, orange-buff to vinaceous red in age with an ochraceous fibrillous dry veil which becomes more orange than the ground color in age, mycelium at base “ochraceous-buff.” Context “orange” to “ochraceous-buff” throughout, becoming spongy and vinaceous red where injured.
Spores 17-23 × 4.5-7.5 µ, elliptical in face view, subfusiform in profile, at first gray-brown in KOH fading with time to near hyaline, in Melzer’s solution yellow to ochraceous.
Hymenium: Basidia 41-57 X 10-15 µ, clavate, hyaline in KOH, in Melzer’s solution hyaline to yellowish becoming ochraceous to weakly dextrinoid near subhymenium in crushed mounts.
Cystidia 112-164 × 13-19.5 µ, fusoid-ventricose, narrowly clavate to narrowly fusiform, thick-walled, (wall reaching 5-7.5 µ at thickest part). thickening toward middle of cystidium, the thickened wall light to dark amyloid in some cystidia but in KOH hyaline to yellow-brown. Caulocystidia absent, scattered or abundant, 60-76 X 12-14.5 µ, narrowly clavate, with somewhat thickened walls, in KOH hyaline, incrusted with dark brown material. Tissues: Cuticle of pileus of appressed, gelatinous, hyaline hyphae 6-7 µ in diam, and light yellow-brown in KOH; scattered weakly amyloid hyphae. Trama of pileus of interwoven hyphae 6-14 µ in diam, darkly amyloid throughout (in crushed mounts light yellow-brown within but with amyloid walls.) Gill trama hyaline flecked with yellow-brown in KOH, the hyphae darkly amyloid, but as observed in crushed mounts with yellow-brown content and amyloid walls. Subhymenium in Melzer’s solution ochraceous to weakly dextrinoid, in crushed mounts some hyphae hyaline, others with weakly amyloid walls. No clamp connections seen on hyphae of the carpophores. Amyloid hyphae present around buttons.
Habit and Habitat. Terrestrial, solitary to gregarious or sometimes cespitose, recorded under Pinus radiata, P. taeda, P. banksiana, P. contorta, P. monticola, P. murrayana, P. resinosa, P. rigida, and P. virginiana. Other conifer such as Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Thuja plicata, Picea sp., and Larix laricina have also been in many habitats. Throughout most of its range fruiting occurs from late August through early October. In northern California, however, it fruits from late July to April. This is the longest fruiting period known for any member of the Gomphidiaceae.
Distribution. Widespread in USA and Canada, from Maine to Washington,south to California, Utah, Texas, Tennessee, Alabama, and North Carolina.
Observations. This is one of two species which have amyloid trama, viscid pileus cuticle, and thick-walled cystidia. It differs from C. jamaicensis in having slightly longer spores, somewhat wider cuticular hyphae, and somewhat thicker cystidial walls.
Fresh material of Chroogomphus vinicolor Pk. ssp. californicus Singer from California has been carefully examined. Aside from the larger size of the carpophores as is well illustrated by comparing the two collections pictured in FIG. 3, the other characters mentioned by Singer (1949) were not substantiated. In particular it was noted that the cystidia, though numerous, varied considerably but were not any more abundant than on very small carpophores (e.g., 0. K. Miller 2083) collected in northern Montana under Pinus contorta. Variation in size is not uncommon in the species of the genus Chroogomphus and with no other consistent differences apparent after close macroscopic and microscopic examination, this subspecies has not been retained. The high rainfall and long growing season along the California and Oregon coast is known to produce relatively large carpophores of many species of agarics."
Created: 2007-01-10 06:05:02 CET (+0100) by Douglas Smith (douglas)
Last modified: 2013-11-18 23:38:41 CET (+0100) by walt sturgeon (Mycowalt)
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