Cap: (1.5)2 — 5(5.5) cm, hemispherical to convex when young to broadly umbonate or plane in age, smooth, hygrophanous, dark dull red-brown when moist, whitish when dry. Often with a darker band along the margin (zonate) which disappears as the mushroom completely dries out. The flesh is red-brown to cream-colored and thin.
Gills: Close, adnate to adnexed, cream-colored when young, later mottled digny brown to soot-black. Gill edges white and slightly fringed.
Spore Print: Jet Black
Spores: 12 × 8 µm, smooth, ellipitic-citriform, thick-walled.
Stipe: (2)3.5 — 8(10) cm long, (2)3 — 7(9) mm thick, equal or tapered at the ends, reddish brown to whitish, pruinose, hollow, no veil remnants, longitudinally white-fibrillose and white-powdered, striate at the apex or twisting vertically down the entire length of the stipe, Stem base and mycelium occasionally staining blue.
Taste: Farinaceous when fresh, saliferous (salty) when dried.
Odor: Slightly farinaceous.
Smooth black spores differentiate this species from its close look-alike Panaeolina foenisecii.
Relatively meaty Panaeolus species that grows on lawns and horse manure. Sometime specimens have a blue stem base. Sometimes other parts of the mushroom stain blue, especially if exposed to the sun for long periods of time.
A cosmopolitan species, it is found in all 50 states of the USA and almost every country in the world. Commonly found in the pacific northwest, the northeast, and the southeastern USA.
This is without a doubt the worlds most widely distributed psilocybin mushroom.
Solitary to gregarious to cespitose on compost piles, well fertilized lawns, gardens and pastures, rarely found directly on horse dung. Spring – Fall .
Panaeolina foenisecii is also found on lawns and looks very, very similar.
Panaeolus papilionaceus also looks similar and can be distinguished by the presence of appendiculate veil remnants around the cap margin.
Contains the psychoactive alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin.
Commonly eaten for its psychoactive effect.
When dried it is roughly as potent, gram per gram, as Psilocybe cubensis.
Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.
Most people know this mushroom as Panaeolus subbalteatus or “subbs”.
Some other common names include “Weed Panaeolus”, “Girdled Panaeolus”, “Banded Mottlegill” and “Red Caps”.