Observation 102600: Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Britzelm.

When: 2012-07-23

Collection location: Glenview, Illinois, USA [Click for map]

Who: Rocky Houghtby

Specimen available

Spores 12.8 X 7.7


Cheilocystidia versiform, mostly ventricose- capitate
Cheilocystidia versiform, mostly ventricose- capitate
Cheilocystidia versiform, mostly ventricose- capitate
cystidia on lamellar face, sometimes encrusted.
cystidia on lamellar face, sometimes encrusted.
cystidia on lamellar face, sometimes encrusted.
cystidia on lamellar face, sometimes encrusted.
Lamellar trama
Pileus trama
Basidia, 4-spore
Basidia, 4-spore
Basidia, 4-spore
Basidia, 4-spore
Hyaline with yellow contents, knurled and deformed.
Singers notes for P. retirugis

Proposed Names

-22% (5)
Recognized by sight: The species concept of Agaricus (Panaeolus) cinctulus is based on a drawing made by Bolton in 1791. No type collection exists. Since it is not possible to know whether Bolton’s species was Panaeolus subbalteatus, P. olivaceus or P. fimicola, I consider Panaeolus cinctulus to be a nomen dubium.
Based on microscopic features: The gill faces need to be checked for sulphidia; the presence of these would indicate that it is probably Panaeolus fimicola.
-24% (3)
Recognized by sight
Based on microscopic features: pleurocystidia present, yellowish saccate gloeocystidia present.
-94% (3)
Recognized by sight
Based on microscopic features

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
Germ pore
By: Byrain
2014-05-19 08:36:59 PDT (-0700)

I’m not sure some 1 spored basidia are all that important here, the only detail that seems to be lacking is if the germ pore is oblique in the side view or not?

Assuming it is, I’d go ahead and call this Panaeolus cinctulus.

By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-05-19 06:44:11 PDT (-0700)

Sorry for the back and forth on this one. I spent the whole day with this thing under dic and mounted in sulfovanillin. The cells I thought might be sulphidia were crumpled up basidia. The cells I thought might be pleurocystidia were single spored basidia. The spores are smooth. It’s cinctulus or an undescribed species that is extremely close to cinctulus. The only microscopic discrepancy is the presence of single spored baisidia along side the regular 2 and 4-spored basidia.

I’ve added
By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-04-28 10:16:09 PDT (-0700)

A photo I took yesterday of Singers field notes in which he records both cells for P. retirugis- a basidiform cell with fuscous (smoky) contents and small hyaline yellow cells terminating hyphae in the hymenium that he didn’t seem to want to call cystidia.

I agree this might be something in sect. Verrucispora. I won’t be back to the herbarium for a couple weeks, but I will spend another day on this species for sure. So far I’ve only studied this collection, but I personally have seven more and there are more in our database.

I really can’t decide what those pointy cells are. You will note a couple have what looks for all the world like a single very immature spore attached to the end…

By: Byrain
2014-04-28 09:39:29 PDT (-0700)

So we are looking at sect. Verricuspora then? I’d really like to see more of those cells with the yellowish contents, Workman has images of partially hyaline sulphidia and those that are not at all like what Bloodworm or I have posted, Gerhardt seems to have illustrated both of them.

Also, I have only read about one spored basidia before, that is what I would think they are, but I don’t really know.

By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-04-28 09:15:36 PDT (-0700)

Were black in deposit. They appear very minutely roughened to me.

By: Byrain
2014-04-28 09:06:47 PDT (-0700)

If this was Panaeolina, I would think Rocky would of noticed the spore ornamentation… They were smooth, right?

By: Richard Kneal (bloodworm)
2014-04-28 00:27:47 PDT (-0700)

“32 MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN [VOL. 24 1. Psathyrella foenisecii (Fries) A. H. Smith, comb. nov. Agaricus foenisecii Fries, Syst. Mycol. 1: 295. 1821. Prunulus foenisecii (Fr.) S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. P1. 631. 1821. Psilocybe foenisecii (Fr.) Quelet, Champ. Jura et Vosges, 147. 1872. Drosophila foenisecii (Fr.) Quelet, Enchir. Fung. 117. 1886. Coprinarius foenisecii (Fr.) Schroet. in Cohn, Krypt. Fl. Schles. 565. 1886. Psathyra foenisecii (Fr.) Bertrand, Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 17: 277. 1901. Panaeolus foenisecii (Fr.) Kiihner, Contr. Etude Hymen. 187. (Le Botaniste, ser. 17, fasc. 1-4. 1926.) Panaeolina foenisecii (Fr.) Maire, Trebl. Mus. Cien. Nat. Barcelona 15: 109. 1933. Illust. PI. 1; Text Figs. 865-867. Pileus 1-3(4) cm broad, obtusely conic to convex, becoming broadly umbonate to plane, glabrous, moist, hygrophanous, “cinnamon-brown” to “warm sepia” to near “benzo brown” or dingy grayish vinaceous brown, margin at times faintly striate when moist, when faded “avellaneous” to dingy buff to pallid and typically atomate, at times the cuticle variously disrupted in age from weathering; no veil present. Context thin, fragile, watery brown fading to avellaneous or finally pallid, odor fungoid, taste acidulous. Lamellae rounded adnate, soon seceding, moderately close to subdistant, broad and ventricose, chocolate brown to very dull vinaceous brown, in age somewhat spotted at times from the patches of maturing spores; edges even and whitish. Stipe 4-8 cm long, 1.5-3.5 mm thick, equal, fragile, pallid to brownish gray paler above, tubular, base dingy brownish and scantily pubescent, faintly appressed fibrillose-striate up to the pruinose apical region, twisted-striate at times; no veil evident. Spores dark vinaceous brown (“bone brown”) in deposits, 12-15×6.5-9 g, ornamented with irregular low warts or areolate patches of outer wall material, apex truncate from an apical pore, apex in some tending to appear snout-like, shape in face view various degrees of ovate, in profile somewhat to obscurely inequilateral, color in KOH dingy cocoa-color, in Melzer’s about the same or finally a duller rusty brown, wall about 0.5 g thick. Basidia 4-spored, clavate, 24-30 × 8-11 a, projecting slightly when sporulating. Pleurocystidia none, but possibly scattered dark-walled (in part) pseudocystidia buried in the hymenium. Cheilocystidia 28-42×7-13 a, fusoid-ventricose with obtuse apex, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline, content not distinctive. Gill trama and pileus trama with incrusted hyphae, the incrustations fuscous brown in KOH (somewhat as in P. barlae), those in the subcuticular zone darker colored than the remainder. Cuticle of pileus a cellular layer 2-4 cells deep, pyriform as well as globose to angular-inflated cells present in it, their walls thin and smooth, hyaline to weakly ochraceous in KOH. Clamp connections present."

By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-04-27 22:07:16 PDT (-0700)

The spores were all lemon shaped, most did not have a readily discernible germ pore, but some did. most had a single oil droplet. some had two oil droplets, but they were not uniform in size so they may have been a single droplet that had separated? I made three micrographs of spores in masse, but I don’t have them on my thumb drive and probably saved them in the wrong folder.

I think its obvious which cells I think might be pleurocystidia. The base, middle portion and elongated protrusion are radically different than the rest of the basidia and seemed to be up to twice as high in the hymenium. My first impression was that these are a secondary shape of single spored basidia. When asked, the mycologist I work with said he has observed this in other genera. Do you have any ideas you can share? Have you seen multiple basidia shapes within a species? Have you seen single spored basidia in Panaeolus? The description for cinctulus does not mention these. I did not observe any two spored basidia.

I only photographed one of the yellow, knot like cells pictured below. I observed three total, but only one scope in the lab I was in had a camera and I had to share today.

By: Byrain
2014-04-27 21:48:06 PDT (-0700)

What do they look like? I’m not sure I see any pleurocystidia, only basidia, it would be strange for a Panaeolus to have pleurocystidia outside of Copelandia. Can you provide more examples of the cell depicted in the last image with the yellowish blurry blob?

Created: 2012-07-23 19:21:13 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2014-05-19 10:20:31 PDT (-0700)
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