Observation 113620: Amanita sect. Caesareae Singer

When: 2012-10-16

Collection location: Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge, Morgan Co., Alabama, USA [Click for map]

Who: DrB

Specimen available

Under trees, in patches, somewhat linear in nature so might be partial fairy ring.

Disagrees with calyptroderma sp description:
Range is given as california to western canada, this is in southeast us
Cap is described as sticky when wet, cap is slick but not noticeably sticky
Universal veil described as leaving a large broad sheetlike patch on cap, generally caps of unveiled mushroom were conspicuously clean of remnants

Agrees with calyptroderma sp description:
cap wide, egg shaped when young becoming convex to flat, margin radially lined, smooth, orange to yellow towards margins,

Gills slightly attached, close, moderately broad, white

Universal veil white, leaving large thick persistent saclike cup.

Partial veil membranous, cream yellow, leaving fragile pendant ring on upper stalk.

Found in october, season of amanita calyp. Given as september to november.

Other observations:
stalk & partial veil flesh has very slight tendency to bruise or dry safron color, young stipe center appears almost hollow with cottony filling. No noticeable “root” to stipe/veil base.

Spore print in progress.


Very young specimen
Very young specimen

Proposed Names

-55% (3)
Used references: Audubon guide species description pp 138, 529
73% (4)
Eye3 Eyes3
Used references: All the world species of sect. Caesareae are listed here: http://www.amanitaceae.org?section+Caesareae; however, brute force searching is not going to be a happy solution for you. With more info, the MO folks into amanitas can help your reduce the number of possibilities.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
It is very common for the sparse stipe stuffing in sect. Caesareae to “retract”…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-10-16 22:59:36 CDT (-0400)

to the sides of the central cavity of the stipe.

Many amanitas have gills reaching the stipe…the “free” character may not become apparent except in very mature caps…if ever. If you read that all amanitas have free gills, it’s simply not true.

The projection with wedge-shaped cross section that is clearly seen running around the inside of the volval sac is called the “limbus internus” or “internal limb”. It is a property of all amanitas…powdery in those with powdery volvas and membranous in those with membranous volvas. Notice that in section Caesareae the upper tip of the wedge-shaped cross-section is attached to yellow (felted) material which is the source of yellowish patches that you may see in some specimens distributed over the stem below the annulus. The position of the internal limb on the inside of the volval sac is a useful character (although somewhat variable) in sections Caesareae and Vaginatae of Amanita.

Thanks for offering to send some dried material.


Wilco re spec.
By: DrB
2012-10-16 22:53:55 CDT (-0400)

Wilco re spec. quarter.

The gill material has to be mature enough to deposit spores, but…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-10-16 22:50:12 CDT (-0400)

it should not be from an over mature cap. If the gills are too young they may have few spores with some abnormally large. If the gills are too old, they will have spores that are substandard in terms of size. If you can spare a half of a complete mushroom or one quarter of one, then we can look at examples of all tissues…if we need to for some reason.

If you only send a couple of gills, we may not have enough for both study of spores and extraction of DNA. It’s possible that more than one lab will want to see the DNA from your material; so we ask that you consider sending a quarter of a fruiting body or more.

Very best,


By: DrB
2012-10-16 22:43:24 CDT (-0400)

Reviewed arkansana sp… It does seem more consistent.

Partial veil for mingo nwr specimen appears conspicuously thicker than current specimen, veil of which is membranous and thin, but does darken safron upon handling as suggested. Gills are also not completely free but very slightly attached.

Section of volva picture added. Cottony filling was present but retracted to inner stipe wall upon sectioning. Inner volva basal stipe ring I mentioned in updated comment is visible at bottom.

Btw, ret: have you ever observed a deformity on cap top above a stipe such as pictured in image 3? I’ve come across aborted entolomas, lobster fungi, bolete parasitized, etc but haven’t seen a deformity quite like this. I find it curious.

By: DrB
2012-10-16 22:23:46 CDT (-0400)

Is dried gill material from younger or older specimen more conducive to examination? Your preference if any?

Since Alabama is a Gulf Coast state, this checklist might be…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-10-16 22:17:19 CDT (-0400)

helpful to you with amanitas. It is certainly not complete, but it’s had a good bit of work put into it over several years:



Many more species in sect. Caesareae are known in N. America now…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-10-16 22:10:57 CDT (-0400)

than in the days when the Audubon guide was first published.

I’d suggest that you take a look at A. arkansana, which is pretty much restricted to the SE U.S. in terms of range.

Try this link:


The white gills, cap color, stipe color, partial veil color, absence of a patch on the cap, and longish marginal striations (grooving) all are fairly good matches with A. arkansana.

If you can send me the dried materila we can check the spores.

My address can be found here:


Very best,

Rod Tulloss

Thank you, r.
By: DrB
2012-10-16 21:30:52 CDT (-0400)

Thanks R.,

Upon reviewing the aud. sp. description, caesarea is a better fit in regards to both the clean cap and the “stuffed” stipe (though “stuffed” begs the question with what?), and the “fairy rings or scattered”. Also as we both pointed out the range of calyp. is inconsistent (thigh I always wonder about range based descriminations absent morphology).

Caesarea is less consistent with the aud. sp. description regarding color and stipe thickness (stipes were more consistent with 3/4" -1&1/4" calyp. than 1/8" to 3/4" caesarea although they are close to or at the high end of the stated range for caesarea. The cap wasn’t sticky.

Re color, we had copious rain so perhaps the orange w/o much red tone was due to that(?)

I reviewed the linked caesarea sect. description you linked. Good lord thats a lot of hypothesized species! :)

Re color/margin lining on young specimen:
Center orangish becoming yellowish toward margin, lining becoming noticeable around 60% of curvilinear distance from center to margin, ridged/prominent around 70%.

Also, water sitting on cap top and then poured off produces a orangish red “tea”. One adult cap was found with unusual growth projecting above cap from exactly above underlying stipe (third image).

Saclike cup is tough, rubbery, somewhat thick (~1.5mm est), and with an inner cup attached at stipe base and up to ~30% of saclike cup height to top margin.

Taste very mild, unremarkable but present, odor not noticeable.

About 20% to 30% of gills bifurcate or include a partial gill from 30% gill span outward. Bifurcated gills are about 10% to 20% (about as frequent as partial gills to somewhat less frequent).

Best regards,

Unfortunately, the geography can eliminate calyptroderma.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-10-16 20:38:06 CDT (-0400)

So…a photograph will be really important.

Your description pretty clearly indicates that you have material of Amanita sect. Caesareae.

If you can’t provide a photograph, then try describing all the colors you see on the cap and where you see those colors.

What is the color in the center? What is the color over the grooved area at the edge of the cap? How much of the distance from the edge to the center is occupied by the grooves? (Half? Quarter? Third? 10%?)

Is the stem only one color or are there patches of one color while the rest of the surface is a different color? What colors do you see on the stem?

There are an unknown number of different species of sect. Caesareae in the SE U.S. So we are going to need quite a bit of information to figure out which one you have.

Maybe you even have one that no one has yet recognized as distinct form the others.

Amanita sect. Caesareae is a really interesting group that is getting a lot of attention at present in Amanita taxonomy.

It will be interesting to know more about what you have found.

Very best,


Created: 2012-10-16 20:18:26 CDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2016-11-21 11:44:29 CST (-0500)
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