Observation 118293: Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.

When: 2012-11-10

Collection location: San Francisco, California, USA [Click for map]

Who: TaxoNerd (Taxo)

No specimen available

Suspected Panaeolus subbalteatus (cintulus):

Pileus -

Cap 2 – 6cm wide; convex to campanulate, bizarre, wrinkled and gnarled, developing broad umbo, especially in age; smooth; tan to brown, with concentric dark ring on margin, fading to tan and losing rings with age.

Lamellae -

Gills brownish, becoming black with age, with white edges; spacing close to crowded; attached and broad, with intermediate tiers of short gills.

Stipe -

Stem 3 – 7cm long, 3 – 9mm thick; tan to brown or reddish, especially on handling and near base; fluffy white to off-white mycelium at base; hollow, fragile; fine white fibrils; vertical striations curving down stem.

Spores -


Habitat -

On grass and wood-chips, in soft soil, likely well manured or fertilized (garden), North-east corner of San Francisco. Spotted in November 2012 a week after several days of significant rainfall.

Comments -

Lincoff (1981) notes that gills are attached and broad, while these specimens present with both broad, attached gills, as well as intermediate tiers of short gills. Stamets and Chilton (1983) support the definition of these specimens as P. subbalteatus in this regard, specifically noting intermediate tiers of short gills between attached, broad gills. Similarly, Lincoff does not mention a hollow stipe, while Stamets and Chilton note the feature.

The stipe is somewhat thicker, up to 9mm, rather than 3 – 5mm, as listed in the sources mentioned above.

These specimens were found significantly out of the season listed in Lincoff (1981)

Proposed Names

50% (3)
Used references: Lincoff (1981)
Stamets and Chilton (1983)
57% (1)
Recognized by sight: The species concept of Agaricus (Panaeolus) cinctulus is based on a drawing made by Bolton in 1791. No type collection exists. Since it is not possible to know whether Bolton’s species was Panaeolus subbalteatus, P. olivaceus or P. fimicola, I consider Panaeolus cinctulus to be a nomen dubium.
Based on microscopic features: The gill faces need to be checked for sulphidia; the presence of these would indicate that it is probably Panaeolus fimicola.

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


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Created: 2012-11-29 00:38:30 PST (-0800)
Last modified: 2013-12-14 13:52:05 PST (-0800)
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