Observation 130194: Scleroderma citrinum Pers.
When: 2012-09-27
(46.335° 13.5305° 420m)

Notes: Code: Bot_658/2012_DSC5116

Habitat: Mixed forest, deciduous trees dominant, flat terrain, cretaceous clastic rock (flysh) bedrock, in shade, relatively moist place, partly rotected from direct rain by tree canopies, average precipitations ~ 3.000 mm/year, average temperature 8-10 deg C, elevations 420 m (1.400 feet), alpine phytogeographical region.

Substratum: soil.

Place: Bovec basin, west of Bovec, near the trail from station A of the Kanin cable car to village Plužna, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia EC

Comments: Growing in a group of several sporocarps. Sporocarp’s diameter up to 8.5 cm, up to 6,5 cm tall; sporocarp’s wall thickness up to 2.8 mm; sporocarp ocher-gold (oac804), squamules deep brown (oac735), gleba gray-brown with greenish tint (oac868).

Nikon D700 / Nikkor Micro 105mm/f2.8

Proposed Names

72% (4)
Eye3 Eyes3
Used references: (1) http://www.mushroomexpert.com/scleroderma_citrinum.html
(2) R.Phillips, Mushrooms, Macmillan (2006), p 332.
(3) M.Bon, Parey’s Buch der Pilze, Kosmos (2005), p 302.
(4) S.Buczacki, Collins Fungi Guide, Collins (2012), p 428.
(5) G.J.Krieglsteiner (Hrsg.), Die Grosspilze Bade-Württembergs, Band 2., Ulmer (2000),p 176.
Based on microscopic features: Spores with coarse ornamentation. Dimensions: 10.7 (SD = 0.7) x 10.5 (SD = 0.6) ?, Q = 1.02 (SD = 0.07), n = 30. Olympus CH20, NEA 100x/1.25, magnification 1.000 x, oil, in water. AmScope MA500 digital camera.
31% (3)
Used references: Kuo’s Scleroderma Key at MushroomExpert.com

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
I see what you mean, Amadej.
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2013-09-14 19:51:56 CEST (+0200)

The spores do look both spiney and reticulate. Or a mixture of both.

Sporocarp size telling too.

I’m seeing much variation in sporocarp size and variety at a local hospital, where Scleroderma seem to litter the ground. I find many Sclerodermas there, but not S. citrinum. This could be a reference to our very acidic soils, versus calcareous soils in your area.

My sense is other species do not stain or have the same thickness of peridium. And soil pH is seldom accounted for.

reticulated spores/size of the fruit bodies
By: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)
2013-09-14 17:00:17 CEST (+0200)

Hi Daniel,

Thank you for your comment to my observation. In future I will try to be more atentive regarding the shape of the warts. Actually I didn’t pay much attention to this observation because Scleroderma citrinum is a very common find near the place where I live and hense I made the determination quite ‘routinely’. Yet, two issues make me some problems.
The first is that the sporocarps found were quite large for S. areolate. Ref.:(4) gives 2-4 cm for S. arealatum diameter and 4-15 cm for S. citrinum. Arora, Mushrooms Demystified gives 2-10(12)cm for S. citrinum and “… are smallish species…” for S. areolatum. The biggest fruit body I found had more than 8 cm in diameter. Of cause, I could have good (bad) luck and found an exceptionally big fruit body of S. areolatum and my be the size doesn’t prove much by itself. However, there is another issue with spores. Both references, Collins fungi Guide and Arora, state spiny spores for S. areolatum and spiny and reticulate spore surface for S. citrinum. The reticulation of (some) spores on my picture is quite nicely seen (if I interpret them correctly?). Would appreciate very much your comments on these two issues. Thanks again for your time.

Not squamulose, but areolate.
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2013-07-30 20:13:11 CEST (+0200)

Difference is erect warts extending to 2mm above surface (citrinum) to mostly flat scales that look more like dried mud (areolatum). Additional hint: visible yellow in cracks where first layer of peridium is visible.

Created: 2013-03-14 16:59:49 CET (+0100)
Last modified: 2013-09-14 20:44:17 CEST (+0200)
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