Observation 136353: Panaeolus rubricaulis Petch
When: 2013-06-14
(19.2993° 98.5909° 1402m)
Project: Panaeolus
No herbarium specimen

Notes: Large blue staining Panaeolus (not in subgen Copelandia) on dung of Thai Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Field collection and photos by Brian Looney.


Edit: CCB 08/08/13
ITS BLAST Panaeolus sphinctrinus (=syn P. papilionaceus)(WA)- 98%; Panaeolus campanulatus (=syn P. papilionaceus)98%; “Panaeolus rickenii”- 98%

Species Lists

Images

337486
Photo by Brian Looney
BPL217
337487
Photo by Brian Looney
BPL217
337488
clamps
337491
Basidia 4-sterigmate, some 2-sterigmate basidia observed.
337492
Basidia 4-sterigmate, some 2-sterigmate basidia observed.
337493
Basidia 4-sterigmate, some 2-sterigmate basidia observed.
337494
Pileipellis KOH
337495
Pileipellis KOH
337496
337497
337498
337499
337500
11.47 × 8.14 Avg= 10.78 × 9.01; Q-avg= 1.20; Germ pore= 1.01
10.99 × 9.12
10.13 × 8.37
10.82 × 10.01
12.04 × 10.21
11.05 × 9.39
9.49 x 8.03
10.22 × 8.81
337667
SULPHIDIA!
337668
SULPHIDIA!
337669
SULPHIDIA!
337670
SULPHIDIA!
337671
337672

Proposed Names

57% (1)
Recognized by sight
57% (1)
Used references: Gerhardt (1996) Taxonomische Revision
der Gattungen
Panaeolus und Panaeolina
(Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae)
Based on microscopic features: Thickwalled metuloids absent
57% (1)
Recognized by sight: appendiculate margin (2nd photo, smallest fruitbody)
63% (4)
Eyes3
Recognized by sight: Appendiculate cap margin, hygrophanous, on dung in SE Asia.
Used references: Gerhardt
Based on microscopic features: Angular spore with nearly parallel sidelines, sulphidia present.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus

Comments

Add Comment
Cheilocystidia
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2013-06-16 19:19:41 PDT (-0700)

I know they are there, I saw them the day prior and made notes and drawings, but I was not able to photograph them.

The cheilocystidia are there
By: Alan Rockefeller (Alan Rockefeller)
2013-06-16 18:38:11 PDT (-0700)

Look again. Sometimes the gill folds over when it dries, making it harder to get. Use a dissecting scope when making cheilo sections.

Panaeolus sect. Panaeolus
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2013-06-16 17:38:03 PDT (-0700)

According to Gerhardt (1996) [translation]: “Reports of occasional content of Psilocybin in fruiting bodies of Panaeolus papilionaceus in and outside of Europe are also known (Menser 1977 NEUHOFF 1958 TYLER & Malone 1960).” So maybe it is possible that collection notes describing blueing may not be innacurate here.

Panaeolus rubricaulis
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2013-06-14 19:42:12 PDT (-0700)

Seems to fit well.

Panaeolus rubricaulis description
By: Byrain
2013-06-14 19:06:00 PDT (-0700)

In German:

Panaeolus rubricaulis Petch

Referenzabbildung:
Yokoyama (1979): Tf. 3 c “campanuloides”.

Beschreibung:
(Nach Originaldiagnose, Petch 1925):
Hut 1-2(4) cm breit, fingerhutförmig bis kegelig-glockig,
konvex, am Rande mit helleren, vergänglichen Velumresten
(ähnlich P. papilionaceus); Huthaut trocken, glatt
oder am Scheitel rugos; hygrophan; Farbe feucht braun
bis grauschwärzlich, mit hellerem Rand, beim Trocknen
ausblassend.
Lamellen grau bis schwarz, mit weißlicher Schneide,
relativ entfernt stehend, brauchig, breit aufsteigend angewachsen.
Stiel bis ca. 100x 2 mm, zylindrisch; Farbe rotbraun
bis purpurbraun, Spitze weiß bereift, gegen die Basis
weißfilzig.
(Typusstudien):
Sporen 12-15 × 9-10(11) x 7-8 µm, glatt, opak, deutlich
abgeplattet, Keimporus gerade, etwas vorgezogen (in
Form und Farbe mit cyanescens identisch).
Cheilozystiden hyalin, bauchig-flashenförmig,
ca. 30-40 × 7-8 µm, Spitze gelegentlich leicht kopfig; Sulphidien
ca. 20-40 µm lang, keulig bis spindelig-bauchig,
z.T. mit kleiner Spitze.
Basidien 4-sporig, ca. 25 µm lang.

Standort:
Auf gedüngtem Boden.

Verbreitung:
Eine seltene asiatische, anscheinend wärmeliebende
Art. Asien: Indien, Neuguinea, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Vietnam.

Abgrenzung:
Panaeolus rubricaulis ist äußerlich durch seinen hygrophanen,
behangenen Hut und den dunklen, rotbraunen
Stiel gekennzeichnet. Die Sporen sind denen
von P. cyanescens in Form, Größe und Farbe nahezu
gleich. Wichtige mikroskipische Kennzeichen sind das
Vorhandensein von Sulphidien auf den Lamellenflächen
soqie das Fehlen von Metuloiden.

Diskussion:
Der wohl recht seltene Pilz ist trotz seiner typischen
Merkmale bis heute kaum bekannt. Pegler (1986) berichtet
in seiner “Agaric Flora of Sri Lanka” zwar über
diese Art, gibt aber in seiner Beschreibung nur eine
Übersetzung der Originaldiagnose von Petch (1925)
wieder und zitiert auch nur dessen Holotypus. Doch
hat Pegler wohl erkannt, daß es sich um eine gute Art
handeln dürfte. Da Autoren wie Ola’h und Singer den
Namen nie berücksichtigt haben, ist er in Vergessenheit
geraten.
Obwohl ich trotz mehrmaliger Bemühungen aus
Japan (TNS) leider noch kein Typusmaterial von P. campuloides erhalten habe, kann ich schon anhand der
Originalbeschreibung von Guzman & Yokoyama sicher
sein, daß es sich um dieselbe, Art handelt.
Die Autoren wollen ihren Pilz in die von Guzman (1972,
comb. inval.) ungültig publizierte Untergattung Anellaria
stellen. Die Bedingungen dafür erfüllt die Art mit
ihrem trockenen, dünnfleischigen, stark pigmentierten
Hut jedoch nicht.

=================

After using google translate:

Panaeolus rubricaulis Petch

Reference picture:
Yokoyama (1979): Tf 3 c “campanuloides”.

Description:
(After original diagnosis, Petch 1925):
Hat 1-2 (4) cm wide, thimble-shaped to conical-campanulate,
convex on the edge with brighter, more ephemeral Velumresten
(Similar to P. papilionaceus); hat skin dry, smooth
or rugos at the apex; hygrophan; moist brown color
to grauschwärzlich, with lighter edge, drying
ausblassend.
Fins gray to black, with whitish edge,
relatively away they brauchig, grown widely in ascending order.
Handle up to 100x 2 mm, cylindrical, reddish brown color
to purple-brown, frosted white top, against the base
white tomentose.
(Type of study):
Spores 12-15 × 9-10 (11) x 7-8 microns, smooth, opaque, clear
flattened Keimporus just slightly forward (in
Shape and color with cyanescens identical).
Cheilocystidia hyaline, bulbous-shaped flash,
30-40 × 7-8 microns, peak occasionally slightly capitate; Sulphidien
20-40 microns long, spindle-to-clavate bulbous,
z.T. with a small tip.
Basidia 4-sporig, about 25 microns long.

Location:
On fertilized soil.

Distribution:
A rare Asian, apparently thermophilic
Art Asia: India, New Guinea, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), Vietnam.

Definition:
Panaeolus rubricaulis is outwardly through his hygrophanen,
draped hat and the dark red-brown
Handle marked. The spores which are
of P. cyanescens in shape, size and color of almost
same. Important characteristics are the mikroskipische
Sulphidien presence of the fins on surface
soqie the absence of Metuloiden.

Discussion:
The fungus is probably quite rare, despite its typical
Features still scarcely known today. Reported Pegler (1986)
In his “Agaric Flora of Sri Lanka” via
this way, there is only one in his description
Translation of the original diagnosis of Petch (1925)
again, citing only the holotype. Yet
Pegler is well recognized that it is a good way
should act. As authors such as Ola’h and the Singer
Names have never been taken into account, it is forgotten
advised.
Although I made despite repeated efforts
Japan (TNS) have unfortunately not received any type material of P. campuloides, I can already based on the
Original description of Guzman & Yokoyama sure
be that it is the same type.
The authors want their fungus in the Guzman (1972,
comb. inval.) invalid published subgenus Anellaria
provide. The conditions satisfied with the way
its dry, dünnfleischigen, heavily pigmented
However, not hat.


The spores are a bit small and they are not quite as opaque as I was expecting, but otherwise I don’t know what else it could be. What were the spores mounted in? Cheilocystidia still would be nice too. :)

There are Sulphidia!
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2013-06-14 17:54:47 PDT (-0700)

I took lots of pictures of them. I was not able to find cheilocystidia in these sections that I made today.

Sulphidia
By: Byrain
2013-06-14 11:19:58 PDT (-0700)

Gerhardt has several nice illustrations of sulphidia, see P. fimicola, P. rubricaulis, P. bernicis, P. antillarum, and P. semiovatus. I think you may find an image of sulphidia here. http://eol.org/pages/1030048/media

Considering the blue staining, there might be some towards the stem base, I’m not sure if its not a camera artifact though.

More info
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2013-06-14 10:42:01 PDT (-0700)

Byrain, I’m really glad to have your input here and I think your right. I certainly missed the appendiculate margin that is visible on the smallest specimen in the first picture. I am relying on notes that describe this specimen as blue-staining, however, that would be unlikely if this is in section Panaeolus, and I think you’re right that it is. Thank you for linking the picture of the oblique germ pores, this specimen does not have those. Can you link a picture of sulphidia. I going to take more micrographs, I’ll have them up this evening. I’m grateful for your input, thanks!

Cheilocystidia?
By: Byrain
2013-06-14 09:32:29 PDT (-0700)

Do you have any pictures of it?

This is an interesting one with that appendiculate cap margin, wouldn’t that take it into sect. Panaeolus? Those angular spores do agree, except they are not very dark as described and smaller than the commonly used name. P. papilionaceus, not to mention its distinctly hygrophanous and I just noticed the location… Are you absolutely sure there is no sulphidia? I also don’t see any oblique germ pore’s on any of the spore pictured? Am I missing it? You can compare with the Gerhard’t spore illustrations for P. cinctulus and P. fimicola or image 314194. It doesn’t really look like P. cinctulus either nor do I see any clear bluing in the pictures.

Edit: Spore shape is not too far off from P. rubricaulis, if still not a bit small and that should have sulphidia. The description needs to be entered into google translate by hand since its on a jpg, I’ll do it later if no one does it first. :)

Its Brian’s
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2013-06-14 08:48:14 PDT (-0700)

And yeh… its neat! :-)

nice find…
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2013-06-14 08:25:33 PDT (-0700)

of a very striking Panaeolus.

Created: 2013-06-14 06:04:58 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2013-08-08 14:00:37 PDT (-0700)
Viewed: 322 times, last viewed: 2016-12-06 20:30:26 PST (-0800)
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