Observation 158343: Pholiotina rugosa (Peck) Sing.

Found in the dunes growing from a small patch of grass.

Spore range = 9 – 11 × 5 – 6 µm
Spore average = 10.5 × 5.9 µ
Q range = 1.5 – 1.83
Q average = 1.71
Germ pore ~1 µm wide
Cheilocystidia measured = 20×7, 24×10, 27×10, 29×8, 29×11, 30×10, 31×10 µ
Pleurocystidia not observed.
4-spored basidia observed.
Clamps observed on the gills & stem.

I’m not entirely sure how different Pholiotina vexans is from P. rugosa (See obs 19885), there seems to be a bit of hair splitting in the spore sizes, but until we know better I think its best to continue using both names.

Species Lists


After a little while in the fridge.
Spores, 1000x, mounted in KOH
Spores, 1000x, mounted in KOH
Spores, 1000x, mounted in KOH
Spores, 1000x, mounted in KOH
Spores, 1000x, mounted in KOH
Spores, 1000x, mounted in KOH
Cheilocystidia & basidioles
Pileipellis from an immature specimen, 1000x, mounted in KOH, 1 µ divisions
Pileipellis from a mature specimen, 400x, mounted in KOH

Proposed Names

-28% (1)
Recognized by sight
Used references: Flora Agaricina Neerlandica vol 6
Based on microscopic features
57% (1)
Recognized by sight
92% (2)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
Typo in the Conocybe/Pholiotina book.
By: Byrain
2016-06-25 13:48:16 EDT (-0400)

I think there is a typo in the sect. Pholiotina key.

3. Spores in average 10.0-12.7 × 4.8-6.6 µm, thick-walled with up to 2 µm wide germ-pore …4
3* Spores in average 6.7-10.3 × 3.8-5.7 µm, thin-to moderately thick-walled with small to medium (-1.5 µm wide) germ pore …6

3 leads to Pholiotina rugosa, P. arrhenii and P. hadrocystis.
3* leads to P. teneroides, P. vexans and P. utricystidiata.

The problem is that when looking at the actual descriptions, it seems the key reversed this couplet since 3 actually leads to the taxa that have smaller thin-walled spores with narrow germ pores.

FAN6 does not repeat this mistake, but splits them in the key with spore size where Anton Hausknecht writes for P. vexans, “P. rugosa: The spore length of both species can slightly overlap, also the cheilocystidia are similar. Most important differentiating characters are wall thickness and colour of spores (Darker in P. vexans) as well as the size of the germ-pore.”

P. rugosa: Spores 8-12(-12.5 x (3.5-)4-6 µm, mean 8.9-10.0(-10.3) x (3.8-)4.2-5.7 µm, Q = 1.6-2.2, elongate-ellipsoid, ellipsoid-limoniform, partly subcylindrical, not lentiform, thin- to moderately thick-walled with large, up to 1.5 µm wide germ-pore, ochre-yellow, orange-yellow to rusty orange in KOH.

P. vexans: Spores 8.5-13.5 × 4.5-7.5 µm, mean (10.1-)10.4-11.8 × 5.2-6.4 µm, Q = 1.7-2.2, slenderly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, sometimes slightly subcylindrical, not lentiform, with thick, double wall and large germ-pore (up to 2 µm wide), orange yellow, rusty orange to rubiginous in KOH.

Both the spore wall thickness and color in KOH are ambiguous, but with the small germ pore this seems to actually key to P. rugosa better. Combined with how the sequence doesn’t match European P. vexans collections I will use this name for now instead. Unfortunately we still need some P. rugosa sequences to be sure.

I didn’t find any either
By: Alan Rockefeller (Alan Rockefeller)
2016-06-25 12:01:37 EDT (-0400)

Maybe you can get someone to mail you some Pholiotina rugosa.

I don’t see any Pholiotina rugosa sequences?
By: Byrain
2016-06-25 11:15:07 EDT (-0400)

This is however a poor match for several Hungarian Pholiotina vexans collections on genebank.

The closest is https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/... which is only an 88% match.

There is probably a fair possibility that this is neither P. vexans or P. rugosa. However I would like to see some sequences for the latter first.

The only close match in GenBank
By: Alan Rockefeller (Alan Rockefeller)
2016-06-25 03:54:53 EDT (-0400)

Is my collection from San Francisco, http://mushroomobserver.org/235056, which differs by only two base pairs.

ITS sequence
By: Alan Rockefeller (Alan Rockefeller)
2016-06-25 03:53:43 EDT (-0400)


Created: 2014-01-21 15:56:21 EST (-0500)
Last modified: 2018-01-30 22:04:46 EST (-0500)
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