Observation 166807: Amanita sect. Vaginatae sensu Zhu L. Yang
When: 2014-06-05

Notes: I was excited with this fungi and its wow factor. I have taken time to display with images as much of the physical structure and colouring as possible in low forest light. The pileus was a remarkable brown colour, ( towards salmon), and retained this colour after drying. It was a single specimen and I cannot remember seeing or loading one as well defined as this one before. The erect nature was significant and it stood tall in its beauty, (to me anyhow.) It was growing in a semi open area of the forest floor with decaying Eucalyptus leaves and debris surrounding the base. The fungi was shallow rooted though, and I had to be careful when clearing the base area that the fungi did not topple. The cap (Pileus), separated easily from the stipe. Recent light rain had fallen in the area after a long dry period of several months.
Infestation degradation was minimal all over the complete fungi. No other specimens were found in the worked area.

Proposed Names

57% (1)
Recognized by sight
78% (2)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight: striate margin to bald cap, exannulate, membranous volva with wholly elongating stipe.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
Thanks Ian,
By: groundhog
2014-09-02 20:14:01 BST (+0100)

This material has been received and accessioned to Rod’s herbarium. We have scheduled it for DNA sequencing.

Response …EDITED
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-10 17:45:01 BST (+0100)

Single basidiome collections can be split by cutting a basidiome in two longitudinally. Indeed, robust specimens can be split into many more pieces than two while still having all or most of the tissues of the mushroom available for study on each of the fragments. In many cases, all basidiomes in a collection are split with halves of some or all the mushrooms retained to serve as the holotype. This was done with hundreds of collections from Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, etc. of which I have personal knowledge.

Basing types on single specimens is another issue. It is widely understood that it is to be avoided in the general case.

There is no way that a new species can be described well without a good description based on fresh material. Multiple descriptions (from separate collections) are preferable. Field or lab annotation is a process that takes time to learn. The subject (for amanitas) is treated on
< www.amanitaceae.org >.

I am “actually” obtaining DNA from an extensive set of material of sect. Vaginatae including type collections. The externally visible evidence of this work appears slowly at first because (for example) it is valuable to obtain sequences from a large number of geographically diverse collections for each species when this is possible. You can follow the progress that we make by checking the “sequence collection” page on the “Amanita Studies” website:


This page presently provides filterable access to 756 sequences of diverse genes from 168 taxa of the Amanitaceae. The sequences are based on samples from specimens determined as well as possible with contemporary methods (molcular and morphological). The taxa count is based on the site’s taxon pages.


in other words …
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2014-06-08 18:30:37 BST (+0100)

in the case of single examples of new species, they should automatically go to a local (i.e. Australian) herbarium? That does make sense. Herbaria in OZ aren’t huts in the outback, and natural disasters can occur anywhere in the world.

By splitting collections though, don’t you really mean sending entire fruit bodies? Shouldn’t a good type collection consist of more than one example? I remember Dennis Desjardin scoffing at collections of a single fb, but mostly because they don’t show the variability within species, so it is difficult to write up a “species description” for just one mushroom. Kinda like attempting to describe the vast morpho-diversity of humans by just grabbing one representative. That is not gonna cover everyone.

On the other hand, if you are actually running the DNA on all of these grisettes, then that is very useful info for the international community, and certainly worth a slice of this sole fb, IMO!

I think that these are all reasonable questions to address here, esp. when folks are requesting unusual international material to be sent to non-host countries.

Division of collections
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-07 18:52:44 BST (+0100)

Bottom lines:

(1) There are a number of fine mycological herbaria in Australia.

(2) It is an ethical, and in numerous cases legal, requirement for a holotype to be deposited in the country in which the material has been collected (of course it is necessary that that country have at least one herbarium).

The herbaria of the world are listed in the Index Herbariorum which is currently maintained on-line by Dr. Barbara Thiers of the New York Botanical Garden < nybg.org >.

The University of New South Wales has a herbarium (code = UNSW) in which many of the collections of Dr. Alec Wood (for example) are deposited. This herbarium is located in Sydney and is a candidate for deposit of material collected by MO participants, such as Ian and Lucy Albertella, who live in NSW.

Even if Australia did not have fine herbaria, but only had herbaria burned by revolutionaries, bombed in wartime, or flooded by terrible storms, in the present day, the requirement mentioned above would hold. This was not always the case (e.g., in the days of colonialism, mycological collections were taken away to the base of colonial power).

Many holotypes are lost or become useless because of the above mentioned requirement. That’s the way it goes. Because of fear of loss, there has been (for a very long time) the practice of splitting type collections between herbaria. Part of such a collection is designated the holotype; the other portion or portions are designated the isotype(s). The isotypes may be deposited in multiple herbaria around the world. When a holotype is lost, then an isotype can become the name-defining collection and is then called a lectotype.

The main point of division of type collections is to ensure maximum survival of the material defining a name (the purpose of a type) and maximum availability of at least some physical fragments of type collections because…herbaria have been bombed, burned, destroyed by earthquake, lost material because of lack of protection from humidity, become unfunded, etc.


you might want to look at spore deposit, too…
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2014-06-07 16:24:56 BST (+0100)

see if there is any color there. at this state of maturity, it would be throwing off spores in your bag.

If the cap itself is salmon colored, could there not be a color transfer to the gills? Maybe not.
OZ for some reason seems to have a number of Amanita sp. that have colored gills, for whatever reason.

Pretty much everything fruiting in OZ has a wow factor, at least from my perspective; I suppose if you get too jaded in OZ, you can also pop over to NZ, where it gets even weirder! Gotta love that island evolution.

And here I used to think that the creatures in OZ were the main event! Can’t wait to get over there. I’ll be like a kid in a candy store!

Amanita cheelii (=A. punctata) is excluded by the pink gills that do not turn gray…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-07 16:07:53 BST (+0100)

and by the form of the volva and other other characters.

See < http://www.amanitaceae.org?Amanita+cheelii >.

I do not recall a pink-gilled species of sect. Vaginatae having been reported from Australia. Dr. Wood does not report this character for any of the Vaginatae that he describes in his 1997 paper related primarily to amanitas of New South Wales and Queensland.

Very, very, very interesting.

Pink gills are reported from a number of sections in Amanita. In some of the taxa reportedly having such gills, the color can be seen to be inconsistent…not always present in all material of the species (material checked morphologically and genetically). In other cases, there are so few specimens that we don’t know if the color is consistent. I have previously raised the concern that some pink gills in sect. Lepidella are so uncommon that they might be a result of infections to which certain groups are liable in certain environments. I will probably never see that question answered in my lifetime.

Yes, there is a “wow” factor at work here.

Very best,


herbarium deposits and locations.
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2014-06-07 16:02:30 BST (+0100)

Is anyone maintaining fungal herbaria in OZ, Ian? It seems to me that it would be useful to retain some of these interesting species right there in OZ, as long as you have sometime there who can preserve them over time.

If you could halve your specimens, then they could be two places at once! I appreciate that Rod is actually doing DNA on many of these right now, and has an excellent, ever-evolving concept of and collection of world species of amanita. Still, OZ mycologists shouldn’t have to travel to NJ to study their local fungi!

If there are no herbariums in OZ where you can deposit these collections, then I suppose it is reasonable to send them to someone who could care for them, assuming that they even survive your trips to and from the Outback!

Those darned amanitas are the definition of perishable … and those grisettes drop their caps at the drop of a hat. Have you noticed? The larger the species, the less likely that it will get home intact.

This is indeed a beauty.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-06-07 15:48:40 BST (+0100)

And the selection of views (and the color chart) are very nice expansions on your photographic treatment. Congratulations.

I just was sent some images from the Dominican Republic including one of a species of Vaginatae with graying volva. My reaction to that photograph was: “I’m in love!” I hope that amanitas are not too concerned with the concept of bigamy. I just fell in love again.

Do you think this queenly creature might consent to coming to Roosevelt to join my harem…oh, I mean “herbarium”?

I hope I will have some more comments for you based on the images.

Very best,


I commend your good taste!
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2014-06-07 15:40:28 BST (+0100)

It was a tiny grisette that drew me into the world of mushrooms … and I haven’t escaped yet!


Deb, The stipe was 5 1/2" or 14cm which ever measurement system you wish to use. I thought it was a magnificent beast.

you have found yourself a very striking grisette, Ian!
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2014-06-07 04:53:52 BST (+0100)

How tall was it?

Created: 2014-06-07 03:56:34 BST (+0100)
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