Observation 171636: Tulostoma Pers.

When: 2013-10-29

Collection location: Pistoia, Toscana, Italy [Click for map]

43.9428° 10.8927° 82m

Who: Luca Pasquali (luca)

Specimen available

Solitary or in clusters in the grass, only found in an area as small as 40 m x 10 m around given latitude, not present anywhere else in the same period of finding in any similar locations of such river with similar grass beds.

Spore measures 40x:

5.1 [5.7 ; 5.9] 6.5 × 4.5 [5.2 ; 5.5] 6.1 µm
Q = 1 [1.1] 1.2 ; N = 37 ; C = 95%
Me = 5.8 × 5.3 µm ; Qe = 1.1

More reliable spore measures 100x + oil immersion:

4.6 [5.1 ; 5.4] 6 × 4.1 [4.7 ; 5] 5.6 µm
Q = 0.9 [1.1] 1.2 ; N = 22 ; C = 95%
Me = 5.3 × 4.8 µm ; Qe = 1.1

5.59 5.32
4.86 4.54
5.99 5.25
5.29 4.94
5.22 4.80
5.73 5.01
5.43 4.25
4.74 4.71
5.34 4.28
5.71 5.31
5.69 5.67
5.04 4.39
5.31 4.93
5.33 4.84
5.41 5.37
4.82 4.57
5.25 4.76
4.84 4.66
5.53 4.68
4.98 4.84
4.98 4.98
4.88 4.52


Spore measures:
Tulostoma 100x oil immersion
Tulostoma 100x oil immersion
Tulostoma 100x oil immersion
Tulostoma 100x oil immersion

Proposed Names

81% (1)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight
54% (1)
Based on microscopic features: spore size is a match, need to check capillitium
54% (1)
Based on microscopic features: spore measures match

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
Maybe more recent studies will be published soon?
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2014-12-26 00:44:13 PST (-0800)

This is what I found in Genbank:

AUTHORS Altes,A., Loarce,Y., Moreno,G. and De Bustos,A.
TITLE Intraspecific phylogenetic analysis of the Tulostoma fimbriatum
complex based on ITS2 sequence
JOURNAL Unpublished
REFERENCE 2 (bases 1 to 346)
AUTHORS Altes,A., Loarce,Y. and De Bustos,A.
TITLE Direct Submission
JOURNAL Submitted (13-DEC-2012) Biol. Cell and Genetics, University of
Alcala, Campus Universitario Externo, Alcala de Henares, Madrid
28871, Spain

By: Luca Pasquali (luca)
2014-12-25 14:50:34 PST (-0800)

I definely will, I’ve schduled to make better 400x and 1000x under oil micrographs to get a more precise view of the ornamentation.
If any of you has suggestions on other parts of the sporophore to analyze, stains to use, proper for Tulostoma I’ll try to produce micrographs for this observation.

By: Bob Chapman (Disciseda)
2014-12-25 13:18:21 PST (-0800)

I don’t have my copy of Wright’s monograph with me, but I know he covers a number of varieties and forms of fimbriatum. I won’t tell you how many collections I’ve marked “fimbriatum”, and stuffed in the bottom of a box with other frustrating specimens with every intention to get back to them real soon.

When I clicked on the image of the spores all I got was a thumbnail of all the images. Could you post a single representative image of a some spores so we can see the ornamentation?

By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2014-12-25 01:59:23 PST (-0800)

Tulostoma campestre Morgan, is apparently an american species,
while Moreno’s Tulostoma fimbriatum var. campestre seems to be described from european material – with larger spores (subglobose, 5.5-6.5 µm), so I guess they are not the same and the latter should have another name…

I had a look at Genbank sequences, and found that fimbriatum is a larger complex with several different forms or species, but I don’t know anything published about them yet..?

Irene, Bob
By: Luca Pasquali (luca)
2014-12-24 14:30:29 PST (-0800)

Many thanks for your contribution, I chose to apply such taxon, as a temporary hypotesys as I share also the opinion of something like Tulostoma fimbriatum related taxa, because I live near the lectotype herbarium deposit and I want to see if I can check my collection against Micheli original data, although I’m unsure if I will ever be able to see that material dated back to 1729.

By: Bob Chapman (Disciseda)
2014-12-24 11:32:19 PST (-0800)

I was thinking the same thing. The thick contorted stipes remind me of the many plants I have found under juniper near Bend, Oregon.


The spores seem a bit large, but I don’t see that as a deal breaker. Here’s Morgan’s description:


How about T. fimbriatum (var. campestre)?
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2014-12-24 01:46:00 PST (-0800)

Although the habitat looks odd for that species…

Likely not squamosum
By: Bob Chapman (Disciseda)
2014-12-23 18:25:28 PST (-0800)

From Wright, J.E. 1987

Spore-sac globose , up to 15 mm diam, generally small compared to the length of the stem. Exoperidium thinly membranous, falling off in small scales, generally dark, but sometimes, as in T. brumale, pinkish white. Endoperidium not whitish, but coloured in yellowish hues to cupreous or even ochraceous orange, finally smooth. Mouth tubular, somewhat prominent, with a lighter coloured peristome. Socket distinct, separated from the stem, membrane irregularly torn. Gleba light ochraceous to light ferrugineous. Stem up to 55 × 4 mm, dark brown to cinnamon, sometimes with reddish hues, brilliant, scaly, the scales appressed and imbricate, pointed. sometimes it may be subscaly, generally somewhat more slender towards the apex, when decorticated longitudinally striate, with mycelial rhizomorphs at the base.

Spores yellowish brown, with a gross echinulate ornamentation under L.M., at times anastomosed to form short ribs, globose to subglobose, 5.4-6.5 × 4.7-5.8

My comment: I would eliminate squamosum for the mouth alone, but the color of the endoperidium and general aspect don’t match that taxon. I was lucky to find squamosum in California many years ago and its quite different with a tubular mouth and colored peristome.


Created: 2014-07-29 11:07:38 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2015-03-10 01:31:28 PDT (-0700)
Viewed: 134 times, last viewed: 2017-06-18 10:39:50 PDT (-0700)
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