Observation 174952: Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Britzelm.
When: 2014-08-21

Notes: Found in manured soil in a box garden. Physical morphology fits within the extremely variable Panaeolus cinctulus with only a few minor inconsistencies: The pileus seems thinner and does not darken noticeably near the margin, rather it remains watery-striatulate, The lamellae are distinctly reddish brown in immature specimens (will update with photo), and the stipe is a very light tan color beneath the pruinescence and completely lacks longitudinal striations.

Spores
1) 14.33 X 9.97
2) 14.94 X 9.91
3) 14.64 X 10.24
4) 16.12 X 10.21
5) 15.47 X 10.21
6) 15.68 X 9.90
7) 13.84 X 9.88
8) 13.78 X 9.43
9) 14.15 X 10.17
10) 14.09 X 10.18
11) 16.04 X 10.87
12) 15.18 X 10.94
13) 13.79 X 9.79
14) 15.44 X 9.40
15) 15.92 X 10.67
16) 15.40 X 10.13
17) 14.01 X 11.19
18) 15.31 X 10.02
19) 14.02 X 10.89
20) 14.18 X 8.93
21) 14.68 X 9.99
22) 14.49 X 9.61
23) 14.52 X 10.03
24) 14.95 X 10.00
25) 14.60 X 9.35
26) 15.25 X 10.87
27) 14.46 X 9.53
28) 13.53 X 10.10
29) 14.75 X 9.67
30) 15.11 X 10.13

Range(13.78) 16.12 X 11.19 (8.93)
Avg= 14.75 X 10.07
Q range- 1.44-1.5
Q= 1.46
Solid black en masse, conspicuously asperulate. Germ pore is mostly apical in side view, Less frequently oblique, Basidia are all 4 sterigma.

Cheilocystidia
1) 32.45 X 12.54
2) 39.57 X 17.31
3) 38.39 X 9.83
4) 33.69 X 14.15
5) 42.58 X 12.94
6) 42.48 X 13.61
7) 37.80 X 11.29
8) 39.94 X 12.10
9) 39.58 X 11.62
10) 36.04 X 9.99
11) 41.48 X 12.49
12) 39.02 X 15.15

Range-(32.45)42.58 X 15.15(9.83)
avg- 38.5 X 12.75
Q range- 3.3-2.8
Q- 3
Ranging from flexuous cylindric-clavate to narrowly utriform to utriform with an obtuse apex.

Epicutis cell width
1) 16.02 X 15.91
2) 19.59 X 18.40
3) 16.40 X 15.97
4) 18.65 X 18.49
5) 20.11 X 14.56
6) 19.23 X 14.99
8) 22.02 X 19.13
9) 22.08 X 19.53
10)25.57 X 15.85
11)21.32 X 16.48

Range-(16.02)25.57 X 19.53(14.56)
Avg-20.09 X 16.93
Q range- 1.3-1.1
Q- 1.2

Images

447935
447936
447937
447938
40X_NH4OH
447939
63X_NH4OH
447940
100X_NH4OH
447941
200XNH4OH
447942
100X_Congo
448309
Cheilo_40X_KOH_Phloxine
448310
Cheilo_40X_KOH_Phloxine_Congo
448962
Cheilo_100X_KOH_Phloxine_Congo
448963
Cheilo_100X_KOH_Phloxine_Congo
448964
Caulo_100X_KOH_Phloxine_Congo
448965
Caulo_100X_KOH_Phloxine_Congo
448966
Pileipellis_40X_KOH
448967
Pileipellis_100X_KOH

Proposed Names

28% (1)
Recognized by sight
70% (5)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight
Used references
Based on microscopic features
-5% (3)
Recognized by sight: spores
Based on microscopic features: size of cheilocystidia

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus

Comments

Add Comment
Agreed
By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-08-26 11:57:06 EDT (-0400)

I spent a lot of time looking at Panaeolina foenisecii in the spring and it is distinctly roughened with ridges or protrusions that are almost measurable. The texture seen in this observation is better defined as slightly wrinkled or possessing pits. As this texture is not obvious in many other Panaeolus cinctulus observations, I am curious about its nature and to which force it’s presence can be attributed. Perhaps spore maturity plays a factor. I am assuming that the other two observations I linked feature spores taken from deposit, as both of those collectors have good collecting habits. Thank you again for the comments.

Asperulate exosporium
By: Byrain
2014-08-26 11:48:15 EDT (-0400)

Is practically smooth in P. cinctulus and other “smooth spored” species, its really easy to read too much into the spore ornamentation unless you have hands on experience with sect. Verrucispora and Panaeolina, who both have discintly rougher spores. For sect. Verrucispora is easiest notice this on the spore wall, its a minute and difficult feature to photograph (Although it would be visible in your great spore photos). Panaeolina have noticably rough spores, but it doesn’t always show up in spore photos that well, img 181779 kind of shows it.

WOAAAAH!!
By: Justin (Tmethyl)
2014-08-26 11:29:47 EDT (-0400)

One of the best P.cinct observations I’ve ever had the pleasure to see.

Wonderful
By: Caleb Brown (Caleb Brown)
2014-08-26 02:18:32 EDT (-0400)

Observation and microscopy, great work, thank you!

So
By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-08-25 22:17:34 EDT (-0400)

I guess that the asperulate exosporium in P. cinctulus is either variable or often missed due to the limited resolving power of conventional light microscopes. The spores in this, and at least two other observations (observation 135706 and observation 169670) are clearly asperulate. Given the specificity with which Gerhardt described the exosprium of every species he studied, I highly doubt that when he wrote “smooth” he intended to say that cinctulus was smooth in relation to Panaeolina or Verrucispora, but not as smooth as other species. Perhaps he missed it, perhaps the exosporium is variable or perhaps European material differs by having an absolutely smooth outer surface.
Byrain, you yourself speculated Verrucispora and Richard even proposed Panaeolina last time I scoped this species (observation 102600). Ultimately, I agree that the morphology and general sizes and shapes of the microscopic structures point at cinctulus.

Thanks all for the comments.

spores…
By: Richard and Danielle Kneal (bloodworm)
2014-08-24 13:18:49 EDT (-0400)

are awfully large.

-
By: Byrain
2014-08-24 13:12:22 EDT (-0400)

This is 100% not Panaeolina castaneifolia or Panaeolus olivaceus (=Panaeolus castaneifolius “Murrill” sensu Ola’h (non MURRILL 1923)). These spore are smooth as in how Gerhardt meant it and compared to sect Verrucispora and Panaeolina. Even macroscopically its very clear this is not Panaeolina, see these.

http://mushroomobserver.org/observer/advanced_search?q=29VPK

Also obs 158389, obs 146939 & obs 8203.

Which Panaeolus castaneifolius description are you reading?

Habitat
By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-08-24 12:45:49 EDT (-0400)

Yes, manure colonized with spawn from my previous Panaeolus observation. Very few of the spores are not apical in side view, while the opposite seems to be true for other P. cinctulus observations with decent microscopy. Panaeolus castaneifolius is described as having occasional off axis germ pores. This and the spore ornamentation and lack of two spored basidia might be irrelevant, hence my lack of confident voting.

Edit

Thank you for the correction regarding Panaeolus castaneifolius vs. Panaeolina castaneifolia.

What’s the habitat?
By: Byrain
2014-08-24 12:20:21 EDT (-0400)

There’s some manure in the soil? Looks like classic P. cinctulus, unless you want to consider P. fraxinophilus too… It took a while to spot them, but there are certainly some oblique germ pores present and I think you’re reading to much into the spore ornamentation.

Created: 2014-08-23 01:07:32 EDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2014-08-26 11:16:28 EDT (-0400)
Viewed: 243 times, last viewed: 2016-10-23 17:21:16 EDT (-0400)
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