Observation 177184: Limacella “sp-L-IL01” Tulloss crypt. temp.

When: 2014-09-06

Collection location: Potawatomi Woods, Wheeling, Illinois, USA [Click for map]

Who: Rocky Houghtby

Specimen available


Found beneath hardwood. Cucumber odor. Viscid pileus. Fibrilis on stipe darkened to drab brown by the end of the foray. KOH on cap surface negligible. Spores small, inamyloid. pileipellis and stiptipellis covered in interwoven chains of hyphae.

4.73 X 5.00
5.04 X 4.32
5.16 X 3.88
5.14 X 4.21
4.11 X 3.96
4.61 X 4.25
5.16 X 4.43
4.28 X 3.90
4.35 X 3.61
4.51 X 4.03
3.74 X 3.79
4.04 X 4.92
4.44 X 3.94
5.18 X 3.86
4.65 X 4.05
4.36 X 3.91
4.51 X 3.65
4.01 X 4.61
4.10 X 3.70
5.09 X 4.15
3.64 X 3.09
4.62 X 4.41
4.29 X 4.45
3.91 X 4.29
4.12 X 4.12
4.07 X 3.96
3.95 X 4.37
5.20 X 4.17
4.02 X 3.73
4.39 X 4.32

Range: (5.20)3.64 X 3.09(5.00)
Q: 1.04-1.18
Avg: 4.45 X 4.1
Q: 1.08

Hilar appendages
Range: .98-1.99
Avg: 1.48

Spore wall thickness
Range: .40 – .91
Avg: .63

Species Lists


Stiptipellis is covered in long chained hyphal elements that are loosely interwoven. Some hyphae brown in H2O .

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
Thanks back at you.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-09-07 14:23:49 CDT (-0400)

Very best,


Thanks Rod
By: Rocky Houghtby
2016-09-07 13:32:10 CDT (-0400)

I appreciate all the info. I inquired with Patrick, but he’s busy with NAMA stuff. I’ll try to make it up to the museum next week and get these in the mail as soon as I can.


In early development, some gluten can run off the cap onto the stipe.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-09-06 18:59:41 CDT (-0400)

In the Lubricae (e.g., glischra) the stipe is covered with its own gluten and gluten retaining hyphae.

Very best,


I checked and sure enough the link to the old name (based on a Mike Kuo…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-09-06 13:23:21 CDT (-0400)

collection number) no longer works. First, thanks to Mike who loaned me a lot of his personal material when I was starting out on Limacella. Kudos to Kuo.

Very best,


In order to make more the crypto-names uniformly geographic,…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-09-06 13:18:59 CDT (-0400)

I changed the name on the WAO website.

Very best,


The second image (surface of pileus) is good.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-09-06 13:14:48 CDT (-0400)

It shows a view of the unusual structure of cap surface in limacellas. I have decided to avoid the word cutis because of the development process of the cap surface in Limacella as opposed the development of a volva and cap skin (pileipellis) in Amanita. After all, the genera apparently have a common ancestor given present knowledge.

In Limacella, the literature says there are two stages of development of the cap surface. First a group of hyphae appear that gelatinize to make the gluten. Secondly, a group of narrower hyphae (shown in your image) grown up from the cap and hold the gluten on the surface the way that spikes on a roof hold the snowpack on the roof in place. The closest analog in Amanita to the “gluten-holding” hyphae are the volvas of the most early diverging amanitas that are still in existence. They have a volva composed of chains of somewhat inflated cells. These chains of cells are very similar to the gluten-holding hyphae, which have somewhat inflated cells in some species of Limacella.

So you might choose to say that the closest analog to the volva in Amanita is the gluten-holding structure on the cap of a Limacella. This idea is not original with me. Both A. H. Smith and my mentor, Cornelis Bas, held a similar view. I think the view can be traced further in the literature.

Very best,


Hi Rod
By: Rocky Houghtby
2016-09-06 13:13:11 CDT (-0400)

I’ll ask Patrick Leacock wether these ever got mailed to you; I believe that was our intention, but things happen. At any rate, they certainly been accessioned into my permanent collection at the museum, or perhaps Patrick’s. I’ll let you know.

Regarding the stipes, they were tacky, almost gluttinate between the scales, but not to the degree the pilei were.

Holy mackerel.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2016-09-06 13:04:14 CDT (-0400)

How did I miss these?

I think this is not glischra. In fact, it looks as though the stems are dry. Am I correct about that? If so then this is in section Limacella unlike glischra, which is in section Lubricae.

Try this:


I think it’s very close and probably the same species that you have here.

Do you still have dried material of this critter? I’d love to see some of it.

Your spore notes are good. There are several items in our notes that will enrich the data on sp-L-IL01 cryptonom. temp.

Very best,


By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-09-08 17:35:56 CDT (-0400)

For the lengthy response, I appreciate that. I wonder if Limacella will turn out to be more cosmopolitan than the other members of the Amanitaceae? This collection was definitely slippery. The stipes in Noah’s observations of L. “glioderma” appear to be tacky as well. I will let you know when the material hits the mail.


By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-08 16:56:35 CDT (-0400)

Fundamentally, I don’t like to force a European name on North American material. The number of times that that has worked out in the Amanitaceae to my knowledge is one. Amanita porphyria appears to be circumpolar in its distribution.

Amanita glioderma falls in the dry-stemmed group of limacellas (section Limacella). As to L. "sp-Kuo-07220705__," it has a stem that has not been classified as “dry” or “wet.” The cap colors seem distinctly different to my eye. The lack of data on the WAO webpages reflects my lack of time to pursue spore measurements etc. on the two taxa.

That should not be a satisfactory answer to you in the sense that you should want more data from more work.

All my material of Limacella has been sampled and sent to a colleague for DNA sequencing; when results come back, all that data will be public as soon as it can be processed and prepared for GenBank.

Don’t be satisfied.

Very best,


Hello, Danny.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-08 08:17:31 CDT (-0400)

I think that Michael Kuo’s collection does seem very like the present material.

Very best,


By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-09-07 23:26:32 CDT (-0400)

missed your question about the conditions. Couple of inches of rain the night before. Cold front lingered until 10 so probably not to humid. The plot is in an oak/maple woodland. lots of Locust, some elm, hawthorne. This was growing out of humus if the picture doesn’t make that clear. They were scattered, three of them close enough together to call caespitose.

By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-09-07 15:00:13 CDT (-0400)

I’ll take a look at the stipe when I measure the spores, thanks!

If this is a “wet-stemmed” Limacella
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-07 13:44:25 CDT (-0400)

then the stem should have gluten-retaining hyphae just as the pileus does.

The wet-stemmed limacellas are placed in Limacella section __Lubricae.

Very best,


Thank you very much, Rocky.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-07 13:41:05 CDT (-0400)

What kind of habit/weather were associated with this observation. It’s probably not mycorrhizal, but I’m wondering how Limacella gets away with keeping the water outside the fruiting body (unless it’s in a rain forest, which happens).

Very best,


Hi Rod
By: Rocky Houghtby
2014-09-07 12:26:12 CDT (-0400)

Wow, I missed the mark on that one (thanks, Noah). Yes, I happily will split the collection with you and keep some at the museum. Limacella explains why the hymenium was so boring, I was hoping some cells would project after it sporulates. The colors in the photograph are exactly as I remember them, to my eye. The stipes in the photo are moistened and were, to some degree, lubricous.

Another comment.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-07 11:46:34 CDT (-0400)

So far no one has reported cystidia from a Limacella in the northern hemisphere. A number of authors have indicated that “lack of cystidia” is characteristic of Limacella. There is a species from Australia that was reported as having cystidia. I have not had a chance to examine such material.

Very best,


Was the stipe dry or moist?
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-07 11:43:18 CDT (-0400)

Very best,


There really is no pileipellis in Limacella
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-07 11:41:52 CDT (-0400)

The layer of gluten and the hyphae that hold the gluten in place have been interpreted as a “universal veil” by a number of authors (e.g., Drs. Alexander Smith and Cornelis Bas). There is a very strong similarity between the gluten retaining hyphae of Limacella and the chains of cells in the volvas of the non-mycorrhizal amanitas of Amanita subsection Vittadiniae (many of which also lack a pileipellis).

Would you be willing to share your dried material? I’d be very interested in seeing it. It obviously comes with some very nice illlustrations.

Is the color seen on MO a good match to color you experienced in the fresh material?

Thanks for noting the color change on the stipe.

Very best,


Yes, indeed.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2014-09-07 11:35:13 CDT (-0400)

The image with the slime outlined above by detritus from the habitat and with “gluten-retaining hyphae” obviously doing their job, is a very nice image. What a beauty this creature is.


betcha Rod will be posting here soon!
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2014-09-07 11:25:47 CDT (-0400)

he’s a big fan of limacellas and their distinctive slime veils.

Nice find, Rocky.

Created: 2014-09-07 00:28:46 CDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2016-09-07 13:29:44 CDT (-0400)
Viewed: 439 times, last viewed: 2018-02-19 21:07:56 CST (-0500)
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