Observation 180799: Geastrum quadrifidum Pers.

When: 2014-09-09

Collection location: Lower Trenta Valley, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia [Click for map]

46.3653° 13.7499° 950m

Who: amadej trnkoczy (amadej)

Specimen available

Code: Bot_835/2014_DSC3951

Habitat: mixed wood, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica dominant, moderately steep, southeast oriented mountain slope, calcareous skeletal ground covered by leaf and needles litter without ground vegetation, under Picea abies, in shade, partly protected from direct rain by tree canopies, average precipitations ~ 3.000 mm/year, average temperature 5-7 deg C, elevation 950 m (3.100 feet), alpine phytogeographical region.

Substratum: on moss covering a small Picea abies stump in the last disintegration stage, decomposed to almost soil.

Place: Lower Trenta valley, near the trail from Trenta village to Zasavska koča na Prehodavcih mountain cottage, halfway between the village and Planina Lepoč, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia EC

Comments: Geastrum quadrifidum is among the smallest species of about 50 of them worldwide (and ten of them described in Slovenian checklist (Ref.7)). It is a rare find. As its species name suggests it usually has four exoperidium ‘legs’. However, sometimes, as in my find, it has five of them. Growing solitary; exoperidium diameter 20 mm, endoperidium diameter 8 mm, its height (without the peristom ‘beak’) 7 mm; SP and spores on mass dark brown.

Nikon D700/Nikkor Micro 105mm/f2.8

Species Lists


Mycelyal ‘nest’ connected to far ends of exoperidium star flaps.

Proposed Names

85% (1)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight
Used references: (1) G.J. Krieglsteiner (Hrsg.), Die Grosspilze Baden-Württembergs, Band 2., Ulmer (2000), p 116.
(2) S. Buczacki, Collins Fungi Guide, Collins (2012), p 440.
(3) W. Rothmaler, Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, Vol.1, Niedere Pflanzen, Elsevier, 3.Auflage, (1994), p 519.
(4) M. Bon, Parey’s Buch der Pilze, Kosmos (2005), p 302.
(5) J. Breitenbach, F. Kraenzlin, Eds., Fungi of Switzerland, Vol.2. Verlag Mykologia(1986), p 382.
(6) R. Phillips, Mushrooms, Macmillan (2006), p 334.
Based on microscopic features: Spores coarsely warty. Dimensions excluding warts: 4.4 [5 ; 5.2] 5.7 × 4.1 [4.5 ; 4.7] 5.2 microns; Q = 1 [1.1] 1.2; N = 40; C = 95%; Me = 5.1 × 4.6 microns; Qe = 1.1; number of warts per circumference: AVG = 12.1, SD = 1.2, N = 30. Olympus CH20, NEA 100x/1.25, magnification 1.000 x, oil; AmScope MA500 digital camera.
Based on chemical features: Smell none; taste not tested (too small).

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


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Created: 2014-09-29 17:41:19 BST (+0100)
Last modified: 2014-09-29 17:43:54 BST (+0100)
Viewed: 47 times, last viewed: 2017-09-29 04:18:53 BST (+0100)
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