Observation 196338: Pholiotina Fayod

When: 2015-01-14

Collection location: Sanborn County Park, Saratoga, California, USA [Click for map]

Who: Christian (Christian Schwarz)

Specimen available

I think this is brown-spored, and the velar remnants and stipe texture remind me of Pholiotina. I should be able to scope it tomorrow night.

Spores 8×5-9×5 microns (some smaller, some up to 11 microns long).
Ochre brown in KOH. Germ pore present.

Cheilocystidia sinuous-cylindrical, some distinctly lageniform. Most if not all < 40 microns long.

Caulocystidia scarce, cylindrical, in clumps, arising from center of hypha or subterminal on swollen hyphae.

Clamps fairly easy to find.

Pileipellius a hymeniform layer of round cells, scattered pileocystidia cylindrical, some clamped and septate

Species Lists


Compared to Mycena acicula (which it was growing among)
Pilepellis a hymeniform layer of round cells, some with strongly narrowed base
Spore shape
Closer look at shape, germ pores visible on many

Proposed Names

21% (4)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight
-47% (3)
Recognized by sight
12% (6)
Recognized by sight
12% (3)
Recognized by sight

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
By: Byrain
2015-01-23 09:19:27 CST (-0600)

I still think its Pholiotina, fan6 says this about Bolbitius, “clamp connections absent, rarely present.” Here is there key, but the species specific key doesn’t seem quite as helpful…

“1. Pileus viscid to glutinous, membranous or thin-fleshed, densely sulcate-striate when mature; lamellae free; entire basidiocarp soon collapsing and decaying; basidia in young basidiocarps separated by large sterile cells (pseudoparaphyses); cheilocystidia never lecythiform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Bolbitius
1. Pileus usually dry or slightly greasy, when viscid not membranous and not sulcate-striate; lamellae adnexed to adnate, rarely almost free; basidiocarp more persistent; basidia rarely separated by pseudoparaphyses and then cheilocystidia lecythiform.
2. Cheilocystidia regularly lecythiform with swollen basal part suddenly passing into short, thin, cylindrical neck (1.0–2.0 µm), crowned with globose capitulum (Fig. 127a); pleurocystidia absent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Conocybe
2. Cheilocystidia subcylindrical, lageniform, utriform or globose, sometimes lecythiform but then usually irregular and basal part gradually passing into neck (Fig. 127b); pleurocystidia sometimes present
3. Basidiocarp collybioid to tricholomatoid; pileus relatively fleshy, usually not translucently striate, rarely weakly translucent-striate when moist; lamellae subhorizontal, not ascending; spore print mostly dark red-brown, occasionally dark yellow-brown; base of stipe often with rhizomorphs; pleurocystidia often present. .3. Agrocybe
3. Basidiocarp usually mycenoid; pileus submembranous, often strongly translucently striate when moist; lamellae usually ascending; spore print orange-brown to rusty brown; base of stipe without rhizomorphs; pleurocystidia
absent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Pholiotina”

By: Joshua Birkebak (Shua)
2015-01-22 12:02:50 CST (-0600)

Doesn’t make much distinction based on clamps (he says present or absent) but does make a big deal of Bolbitius having a viscid pileus and Pholiotina rarely viscid (but only occasionally unclamped). Yours does not look viscid correct?

On inspection of the pictures of the gill faces it doesn’t look like there are peudoparaphyses to me (assuming they are the same type as Leucocoprinus). When looking at a leucocoprinus face it was like a checker board of almost evenly spaced basidia with really broad, voluminous basidioles spacing them!

Perhaps I am now leaning Pholiotina…

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2015-01-22 11:35:14 CST (-0600)

sinuous-cylindrical, some distinctly lageniform. Most if not all < 40 microns long.

It seems like a lot of features used to separate Pholiotina and Bolbitius overlap or are subtle to interpret (ie. pseudoparaphyses as opposed to normal basidioles).

However, Funga Nordica lists clamps as mostly absent in Bolbitius (with an exception for at least one white species).

Clamps were pretty easy to find in multiple tissues in this collection (subpellis, hymenium, stipe). In combination with the fact that the cap was not strongly viscid (maybe a bit greasy-shiny), I’m still leaning towards Pholiotina.

There is very little left of this single, dried fruitbody now, but I’ll get it put in our next sequencing round.

By: Byrain
2015-01-22 10:12:48 CST (-0600)

Are they present? I think they might help distinguish Bolbitius/Conocybe and Pholiotina.

“basidia in young basidiocarps separated by large sterile cells pseudoparaphyses”

Dont know why
By: Joshua Birkebak (Shua)
2015-01-22 10:03:49 CST (-0600)

But I am leaning Bolbitius on this one (sp. nov.?). Cheilocystidial details would help distinguish between Bolbitius and Pholiotina (typically at least).

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2015-01-22 09:49:02 CST (-0600)

I did two different gill mounts and saw very few hymenial cystidia, which surprised me. I’ll do one more today, maybe I’ll get lucky.

By: Byrain
2015-01-22 09:44:38 CST (-0600)

Nice micro, unfortunately you’re going to want to go back and look for cheilocystidia if you want a confident genus name… They should be there, I suggest a crush mount of only the gill edge. Maybe even do that to several gills.

Thank you Elsa…
By: Claude Kaufholtz-Couture (Claude Kaufholtz-Couture)
2015-01-22 08:43:56 CST (-0600)

for the article… très intéressant !

See this
By: Elsa (pinknailsgirl)
2015-01-22 07:40:02 CST (-0600)
Neat Mushroom!
By: walt sturgeon (Mycowalt)
2015-01-15 13:39:38 CST (-0600)

looking forward to more information.

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2015-01-15 12:49:07 CST (-0600)

My head said Pulk, my fingers typed Byrain… That’s what I get for trying to talk to two people at the same time.

As for the stipe material – I think the whitish stuff on the stipe is from clumps of caulocystidia, unlike the thin, “plain” hyphae that it appears the partial veil fibrils are made of. But some Bolbitius have silkier-looking stipes than others that look more granular (esp. near the base).

By: Byrain
2015-01-15 11:57:02 CST (-0600)

I wonder how that veil compares microscopically with the white material on the stem? The description might need to be adjusted to absent or nearly absent.

Also, Pulk suggested Pluteus. :)

Pluteus, veil
By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2015-01-15 11:45:24 CST (-0600)

The image of the button of B. aleuriatus sensu CA at observation 153969 shows wispy fibrils around the edge of the cap (look at it full size).

This feature can also (barely) be seen on the button on the right hand side in the first image at observation 159708

As for Pulk’s proposal of Pluteus – I think it’s a real good guess, cause it looks A LOT like the green-capped yellow-stiped tanoak species of that genus that grows in the same habitat. However, this species had a thinly viscid, deeply translucent-striate cap, and was much more slender than even the smallest Pluteus I’ve ever seen.

Re: Bolbitius
By: Byrain
2015-01-15 11:29:31 CST (-0600)

Do you happen to know of any images showing this veil on Bolbitius? Could it just be remains of the stem rather than velar tissue?

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2015-01-15 11:09:57 CST (-0600)

I think Bolbitius is a good genus to consider (because there are green-capped species elsewhere), but I still think Pholiotina more likely.

Interestingly, while FAN and other sources frequently list Bolbitius as lacking a veil, the few species I’ve had the chance to inspect up close and when young (B. aleuriatus sensu CA, B. titubans) actually do have a veil when young. It is evanescent and easily overlooked – fine cortina-like hairs embedded in the slime of the cap and finely attached to the stipe.

Looking forward to the microscopy.
By: Byrain
2015-01-15 10:03:35 CST (-0600)

If this is indeed Bolbitiaceae (Spores and pileipellis structure should tell) cheilocystidia will give us the genus.

Edit: Also, the presence of a veil makes Bolbitius at least doubtful.

From fan6:

“Basidiocarp mycenoid to coprinoid, fragile, soon collapsing; pileus paraboloid or ellipsoid at first, becoming fully expanded with striate-sulcate margin, glabrous, viscid to glutinous; lamellae free or narrowly adnexed, orange-brown when mature; stipe central, widely fistulose, fragile, white or pale coloured, pruinose at least at apex; veil absent; spore print orange-brown, chocolate-brown to rusty brown.”

Created: 2015-01-14 20:36:46 CST (-0600)
Last modified: 2017-07-12 23:10:04 CDT (-0500)
Viewed: 386 times, last viewed: 2018-01-22 00:06:40 CST (-0600)
Show Log