Observation 208566: Amanita subsolitaria (Murrill) Murrill
When: 2015-07-02
(39.7407° -74.7224° )

Notes: > Two basidiomata growing next to each other in sandy soil under oaks on the north side of Quaker Bridge Road, east of the Atsion Lake ranger station.
> The larger sporocarp’s cap is 8 cm in diameter; the exannulate stipe is 9.5 cm in length from apex to the tip of the bulb; the carrot-like bulb is 4.5 cm long and 1.7 cm wide at it’s widest point.
> The smaller sporocarp’s cap is 5 cm in diameter; the exannulate stipe is 6.5 cm in length from apex to the tip of the bulb; the carrot-like bulb is 3 cm long and 1.2 cm wide at it’s widest point.
> The UV material on caps consists of a thin felt-like layer.
> The gills are yellow-cream; no forking or anastomosing was observed in either sporocarp.
> The mushrooms have a complex and peculiar sweet odor mixed with a potent stinky component; the aroma was somewhat reminiscent of the matsutake odor

Amyloid in Melzer’s;
[20/1/1]: L x W = (10.9-) 11.4-14.0 (-15.3) x 4.2-4.7 (-4.9);
L x W = 12.8 × 4.4 μm;
Q = (2.47-) 2.58-3.16 (-3.22); Q = 2.91; cylindric (13 spores) to bacilliform (7 spores)


The dark structures are not warts, but dirt and sand
Mounted in Melzer’s and viewed at x1000; 1 div. = 0.465 μm; the longest observed spore is touching “8”

Proposed Names

52% (3)
Eye3 Eyes3
Used references: www.amanitaceae.org
Based on microscopic features: Cylindrical spores as viewed at x400

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2015-08-08 18:18:56 PDT (-0700)

Your notion that A. rhoadsii, a Deep South species, might occur in NJ is intriguing. Why not?! A number of confederate state’s fungi (e.g., boletes and amanitas) are found in the NJ coastal plains. I wasn’t even aware of this species because it wasn’t on the NJ checklist.
Incidentally, Athena’s L x W values are exactly the same as those of L’ x W’ listed for A. rhoadsii on the WAO website, and her range of spore dimensions is a better fit, too, considering that there’s quite a bit of overlap for the two species to begin with. Also, looking at the macroscopic detail and microscopic data of last year’s A. subsolitaria, obs 175574, the current observation may not be the same thing.

Normally, the spores of subsolitaria are a bit broader; and, consequently,…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-08-08 16:22:07 PDT (-0700)

the Q values are lower. On the website is a composite of the spore data I’ve accumulated for subsolitaria over decades. If you’re seeing Q higher than the values you and Athena got for this material, I think we need to consider whether Amanita rhoadsii is in New Jersey. One way to segregate subsolitaria and rhoadsii (which are very similar) is the absence of a well-formed pileipellis in rhoadsii. The best write up of the two taxa is in Bas’ 1969 thesis.

Very best,


Thank you, Rod
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2015-08-08 15:42:27 PDT (-0700)

I agree that both reports are compatible. I think it’s actually remarkable how close they are given the long list of variables that exist in this kind of activity. I found my first A. subsolitaria last year (obs 175574). Its spores are shorter and somewhat wider, giving much lower Q values.
A while back I read about your method of randomly selecting properly oriented spores for measurement. In my experience it’s rather difficult to be totally unbiased in such a selection, but I always try to keep this guideline in the back of my mind. Still, I think that getting the length/width range as accurate as possible is absolutely essential. I always remind myself that no two most random samplings of 20 spores from the many thousands floating around will give you exactly the same set of values. That’s why I never go back and re-measure anything.
Before I start measuring spores, I just slide the lens across the field for a couple of minutes just to see what’s around. Then I measure several spores that look right in terms of their spatial orientation and look at how close/apart the numbers are. Then I start searching for shortest/longest spores as well as 5th and 95 percentiles — sometimes it take a while. I complete the task by randomly selecting the remaining 10 or so spores. The whole process usually takes 35-45 min, sometimes longer for ellipsoid spores. My reticle has 200 divisions, so I can be super-duper precise.

I have Athena’s measurements in front of me. —>EDITED
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-08-08 14:41:25 PDT (-0700)

Your bold Q value (average Q) is only a few hundredths off from Athena’s (2.86). I would not consider that a significant difference with a species that has such high Q values.

Other summary values from Athena’s work are L = 12.1 µm and W = 4.3 µm. She did not see spores as long as you report, but variation in extreme values is to be expected. Her 5th & 95th percentile values for length are 10.6 and 13.5 µm; for width, 3.6 and 4.6 µm; and for Q, 2.50 and 3.25.

I’d say that the two reports are completely compatible.

Very best,


I have Athena’s measurements in front of me.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-08-08 14:36:18 PDT (-0700)

Your bold ++Q++ value (average Q) is only a few hundredths off from Athena’s (2.86). I would not consider that a significant difference with a species has such high Q values. Other summary values from Athen’s work are ++L++ = 12.1 um and ++W++ = 4.3 um.

Very best,


Spore measurements and pic posted
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2015-08-07 19:31:44 PDT (-0700)

I am curious how Athena’s measurements stack up against mine.

It is very interesting that this material was associated with an oak after a fire.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-08-05 03:36:47 PDT (-0700)

At the very least, this illustrates the sort of pressures that a fire-prone, leaky ecosystem places on fungal populations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast coastal plains. I’m sure that I’ve mentioned to you before the apparent tendency of Amanita spores to develop strongly elongated forms in this environment. Such spores will stay aloft longer (even in still air) than more nearly spherical spores. Hence, there is an increased likelihood that such spores can escape from any particular locality that may be destroyed by a single fire.

Very best,


By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2015-08-04 19:32:47 PDT (-0700)

I have another glass slide with the spore print from the same collection/fruiting body. I will measure the spores and post them here in a day or two so you can compare the two data sets.
As you know this collection dates from July 2nd. I was at Atsion on July 13th and saw another duo of the same species growing at exactly the same location. I left them undisturbed.
In another observation from July 2nd (obs 208537) I noted that the area sustained extensive fire damage in early May. The amanitas were growing under fairly large oaks that might recover from the effect of fire and keep producing mushrooms in the future. I have never seen these amanitas there before.

Athen Wu worked up the spores for this collection.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-08-04 16:02:04 PDT (-0700)

Her measurements produce an average Q (length/width ratio) for this material that is on the high end of the range for A. subsolitaria. Nevertheless, with the unusual odor and the yellowish gills, I think that subsolitaria is likely.

Very best,


Thanks Igor,
By: groundhog
2015-08-04 13:33:02 PDT (-0700)

This material has arrived and we have accessioned it to Rod’s herbarium.

Thank you, Igor.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-07-03 21:08:59 PDT (-0700)

I will be interested to see the dried material.

Very best,


Thank you…
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2015-07-03 16:56:58 PDT (-0700)

… for commenting, Rod. The dried material still has the peculiar odor. I saved this material for you.

I know this link is familiar to Igor, but others may fint it new and of some use:
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-07-03 16:53:44 PDT (-0700)
Yellowish gills, an unusual (and not unpleasant) odor, cylindric spores…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-07-03 16:50:39 PDT (-0700)

These are all indicators for subsolitaria, I’m inclined to give a positive vote for that species.

Very best,


Created: 2015-07-03 10:48:55 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2015-08-07 19:25:15 PDT (-0700)
Viewed: 135 times, last viewed: 2017-06-20 06:07:28 PDT (-0700)
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