Observation 217675: Tulostoma fimbriatum Fr.
When: 2015-09-25
(46.3602° 13.7023° 600m)

Notes: Code: Bot_914/2015_DSC9243
Habitat: growing from crevices among limestone rocks of a dry wall forming border of a pasture; mosses, Asplenium trichomanes, Asplenium ruta-muraria, Geranium macrorrhizum, Geranium robertianum, Sedum album also growing on the wall; about 1 m above ground level; half sunny, dry place, south aspect; partly under a large Tilia cordata canopy; partly protected from direct rain by it; average precipitations ~ 3.000 mm/year, average temperature 7 – 9 deg C, elevation 600 m (2.000 feet), alpine phytogeographical region

Substratum: small amount of mixture of sandy soil and raw humus plus mosses among limestone rocks.

Place: Lower Trenta valley, right bank of river Soča between villages Soča and Trenta, ‘Na melu’ place near cottage Trenta 2b, East Julian Alps, Posočje, Slovenia EC

Comments: Spore sac subglobose, diameter 11 mm, height 9.5 mm; peridium quite firm, with granular surface (adhering grains) particularly at the bottom of it; much of spore material has already gone (seems an older sporocarp); peridium hole almost without projecting peristome, irregular, with fibrous edge, no darker hallo around it; stalk 55 mm long, spindle shaped, diameter 3.5 mm at the apex and 5 mm max at about 1/3 of its height, tough and hard, not pliant, very coarsely fibrous; volva almost absent; capillitium hypha abundant, long, firm, elastic, thick walled, branched, rough on several places, septa rare, no clamps observed, hypha not much inflated at the septa; crystals very rare (if at all present); spore on mass and SP rusty-brown, oac684. Fruitbody was growing solitary.

There are two species of genus Tulostoma listed in Slovenian check list of fungi – Tulostoma brumale and Tulostoma fimbriatum. The most common species of this genus is Tulostoma brumale, but observed traits apparently do not fit to it. This observation has very indistinctive volva (just a few brown scales), fruitbody has almost no projecting peristome and brownish hallo around it, crystals have been barely seen (if at all?), spores are too large and hypha at the septa is not or only slightly inflated (not strongly as for Tulostoma brumale according to Ref.:3 and others). Apparently macro- and microscopic traits fit well to Tulostoma fimbriatum. Habitat seems at first a bit strange (usually found on sandy soil and dunes) but Ref.:1. explicitly states also ’ … solitary also on old walls made of calcareous rocks…’.

The only thing, which puzzles me, is spore surface. Shape and size if the spores agree with expectations reasonably well, however, all sources agree that their surface should be (minutely?) warty. My observations barely show ‘warts’. Actually spores look like slightly polygonal, some warts can be seen here and there, but some spores seem also completely smooth (not in focus?). This could be due to my poor equipment and experience or the warts are very low, or they can be seen only if colored, or the spores are not yet mature (doesn’t seem the case according to the condition of the fruitbody), or possibly this is not Tulostoma fimbriatum.

Nikon D700/Nikkor Micro 105mm/f2.8

Proposed Names

57% (1)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight: stalked puffball without distinctive peristome
Used references: (1) R.M. Daehncke, 1200 Pilze in Farbfotos, AT Verlag (2009), p 1096.
(2) J. Breitenbach, F. Kraenzlin, Eds., Fungi of Switzerland, Vol.2. Verlag Mykologia (1986), p 396.
(3) G.J. Krieglsteiner (Hrsg.), Die Grosspilze Baden-Württembergs, Band 2., Ulmer (2000), p 181.
(4) W. Rothmaler, Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, Vol.1, Niedere Pflanzen, Elsevier, 3. Auflage (1994), p 511.
(5) M.Bon, Parey’sBuch der Pilze, Kosmos (2005), p 300.
(6) S.Buczacki, Collins Fungi Guide, Collins (2012), p 444.
Based on microscopic features: Spores subglobose and variably shaped. Dimensions: 4.5 [5.2 ; 5.5] 6.2 × 4 [4.6 ; 4.8] 5.4 microns; Q = 0.9 [1.1 ; 1.2] 1.4; N = 40 ; C = 95%; Me = 5.4 × 4.7 microns; Qe = 1.2. Hypha diameter: 2.9 [4 ; 4.5] 5.6 microns; N = 29 ; C = 95%; Me = 4.2 microns (Ref.:2. 3 – 6 microns). Olympus CH20, NEA 100x/1.25, magnification 1.000 x, oil (spores, septa); NEA 40x/0.65, magnification 400x (hypha), in water. AmScope MA500 digital camera.
Based on chemical features: Fruitbody no smell, taste not tested.

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
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Created: 2015-10-04 07:32:16 EDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2015-10-04 09:12:15 EDT (-0400)
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