Observation 221863: Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam.
When: 2015-11-01
(45.1674° 19.8035° 320m)
No herbarium specimen

Notes: I found this specimen in the beech forest. There were several dozens of fruiting bodies. They all had more or less yellow warts on cap.
I have found no information that Amanita muscaria subsp. flavivolvata is found in Europe.
Any ideas?

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Recognized by sight
60% (2)
Recognized by sight

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With regard to the genes that have been examined,…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-11-07 07:39:05 PST (-0800)

Amanita muscaria shows a lot of variation. The representation of the species in a recent paper (Geml et al. 2008. Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in Amanita muscaria, a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete. Molec. Phylog. Evol. 48: 694-701.) is not as a single branch of an evolutionary tree, but as quite a complex cluster (clade) of branches with a common root. Within this cluster there is/are no well-defined subcluster(s) correponding to cap colors. We made a considerable effort to look for more material in the seven years since the above paper came out. We still have the same hypothesis, the cap color differences are associated with color variants rather than separate taxonomic entities. If you go back into the old literature, you will find an illustration showing a muscaria-like mushroom with alternating red and yellow radial stripes. It is quite possible that this represents an individual fruiting body of A. muscaria.

There has been much discussion of this and the “varieties” of muscaria in the last several years that might be found by searching the comments of mushroom observer.

Very best,

Rod Tulloss

By: Bojan Seguljev (Bojan)
2015-11-07 01:03:32 PST (-0800)

Thank you for explanation. In Europe we often encounter forms with a yellow cap(var. formosa?) or warts. Also, I would like to know how these forms differ in the ITS or LSU rDNA sequences from the usual red A. muscaria.

The neotype collection of Amanita muscaria had yellow warts.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2015-11-05 15:32:21 PST (-0800)

So far as is known, there is no support from genetic studies for the proposed various forms and varieties of European muscaria. Amanita muscaria subsp. flavivolvata is endemic to North America and, to date, seems to be the same species as the North American white and yellow cap variants. In Europe, there is a single name applying to all color variants (muscaria), in North America we are looking for supporting evidence that will increase the probability that A. chrysoblema is the available name for our dominant muscarioid species. We do have at least one endemic muscarioid that is distinct and has an accepted name A. persicina.

Very best,

Rod Tulloss

Created: 2015-11-05 13:34:18 PST (-0800)
Last modified: 2015-11-05 15:25:18 PST (-0800)
Viewed: 90 times, last viewed: 2016-10-23 20:50:44 PDT (-0700)
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