Observation 24164: Russula Pers.
When: 2009-08-09
Herbarium specimen reported

Proposed Names

31% (2)
Eye3
Recognized by sight: Gray cap…but the stalk seems is short is that normal?….found under aspen
Used references: Mushrooms of western Canada…..
90% (2)
Eyes3
Recognized by sight

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus

Comments

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russula microscopy
By: Andreas Gminder (mollisia)
2009-08-10 02:33:15 EDT (-0400)

microscopy of Russula is far from beng easy and in many cases more complicate then in other fungi. You need to look at the cuticule (cap surface) and there you have to make a preparation in Sulvovanillin (= H2SO4 konz. + Vanillin) which shows you the greyish reaction of the pileocystidia – if they are present. If you don’t see any, you have to make a 2nd mount with carbol fuchsine (stain for 10 min, then clear with water, then mount in HCl 3%). There you should then see irregular cristals or “lumps” on the hyphae. In some groups of Russula you also have to look at the normal hairs that every Russula species has. This should be a radial section, best mounted in congo red. Then you have to make a preparation from spore print (or a gill squash if you don’t have a spore print), mounted in Melzers reagens (stain for a few minutes, then wash out with chloral hydrate and mount in that for best viewing). Important are the kind of ornamentation (isolated warts, short connections between the warts, many ridges or even reticulate ornamentation) and the hight of the warts. Of course spore size is also important.
Macrochemically FeSO4 is important. You can use crystals as well as a watery solution. The crystals have the advantage that they can be stored forever, whereas the FeSO4 solution only holds for some months. Guajak reaction is in some cases also of significance.
You also have to note smell and taste, and eventual occuring discolourations.

As you see, Russula determination is a thing that needs time. I have just finished a week seminaire dedicated to Russula and Lactarius last week. We had appr. 55 species of Russula in that week from all kind of biotops and have had time to extensively train microscopy and use of keys and literature. All have made great efforts in that group and its really best to have others for exchange of thoughts. Doing Russula and beginning with their microscopy all alone is a complicate thing.
Not meant to make you give up Russula, but just to show the difficulties in determination. therefore it is not often possible to say names to pictures without more details. Often enough it is difficult though you have all relevant data.
And I can only judge the european species and think that in America other species occure. Don’t be sure if there are ANY which occure on both continents. So I can only give my comment to european names. But what it could be in America I can’t tell, sorry.

Okay well thanks
By: Johannes Harnisch (Johann Harnisch)
2009-08-09 22:59:00 EDT (-0400)

I have Ferrous sulfate is that what you mean? but it is dried does that matter? and BTW although I can see the spores of Russulas they are not very clear with my microscope not sure if it needs a cleaning or what and so I can not see the ornamentation clearly is pileocystidia easier to see?

You need chemicals for fresh fruitbody reaction and
By: Gerhard Koller (Gerhard)
2009-08-09 19:45:26 EDT (-0400)

then you have to look for pileocystidia in the cap cuticle and if there are encrusted primordial hyphae or not … and you need to look closely at the ornamentation of the spores …

Okay well thanks but
By: Johannes Harnisch (Johann Harnisch)
2009-08-09 18:39:04 EDT (-0400)

what could I call it now? BTW I have made a spore print and am wondering if I could use the microscope to ID it? but I am not sure what to look for….I hope to get a micrometer fro my microscope and then I can measure the spores but I don’t know if that will help?

not grisea!
By: Andreas Gminder (mollisia)
2009-08-09 14:53:36 EDT (-0400)

Russula grisea has many colours, but never such a grey one. It varies in different green and violet tone, just as R. cyanoxantha. Also the spore print is far too dark for R. grisea which has only IIc-d.

Created: 2009-08-09 13:33:55 EDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2010-12-09 14:53:56 EST (-0500)
Viewed: 103 times, last viewed: 2016-09-29 18:04:37 EDT (-0400)
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