Observation 28674: Chlorophyllum brunneum (Farl. & Burt) Vellinga
When: 2009-11-23
Herbarium specimen reported

Notes: I have posted some photos of specimens of what used to be called in a genus Macrolepiota, but has been reclassified as Chlorophyllum.

The commonly identified species is C. rachodes (apparently an original misspelling of a Greek term, and should have been “rhacodes”, referring to the tattered veil. However, it appears that this species has now been identified a three separate but similar species (rachodes, olivieri, and brunneum). See http://www.svims.ca/council/Chloro.htm

I think the specimens I found are C. brunneum, because the ring has only one flaring edge, rather than two, and the base bulb does seem to have a bit of a ridge. [But I have not been able to find a good picture of what is referred to as the double edged ring, so I am not absolutely certain what that is describing – if anyone has a good picture of that, I’d like to see it.] Everything, except the movable nature of the ring, discussed below, fits the descriptions, though I am also a bit unsure of what it being described as a ridge on the base of the bulb, so I have pictures of that too). Habitat was in needle duff under some type of stiff needled evergreen (not a white pine), base bulb not sac like as in Amanitas, but more of a white mass. (There is no greenish color in the gills, the upper stipe is hollow, and there is some red/saffron staining of the flesh when cut. When the gills dry, they do have the crinkled appearance that I think is typical of C molybdites, but that may be common to all of these.) Spore print is white.

The reason I am posting this is because both C. brunneum and rachodes are described as having a ring that is movable on the stipe. All of my specimens have rings that are well attached, not movable. So I am wondering whether there is something else that these might be that should be considered. The descriptions of these two species are below.

Chlorophyllum brunneum (Farlow & Burt) Vellinga

CAP 10–20 cm wide, convex becoming flat in age; disc cinnamon brown, smooth; margin colored like the disc, smooth at first, soon breaking up concentrically into smooth upturned scales with white fibrous flesh showing between the scales. GILLS free, white, becoming red or brown when bruised, darkening in age, close, edges finely fringed, in two or three tiers. SPORE PRINT white. STALK 10–20 cm long—about equal to the diameter of the cap, top 10–25 mm thick, club shaped, base with an abrupt bulb having a flattened top and often a ridged perimeter, stuffed, smooth, white, surface darkening when bruised, cut flesh staining reddish or saffron. RING thick, persistent, membranous, single edge, edge fibrous and frayed, movable like a ring on a finger, white above with a tough brown patch below. ODOR not remarkable. TASTE not remarkable. HABIT scattered to gregarious. HABITAT compost, rich soil, gardens. EDIBILITY edible and choice but may sicken some people—see notes. SPORES 10.0–13.2 × 6.9–8.6 µm, broadly oval, with a germ pore, dark reddish brown in Melzer’s. CHEILOCYSTIDIA clavate, narrowing toward the base. PLEUROCYSTIDIA absent. CAP CUTICLE compact cemented hymeniform layer of clavate to bulbous cells. NOTES Salient features that distinguish C. brunneum from C. rachodes: C. brunneum has a ring with a single edge and its stalk base is an abrupt bulb with a flattened top that often has a ridged perimeter; C. rachodes has a double-edged ring and a stalk base that is either gradually swollen or is a bulb with a sloping top that never has a ridge. Edibility Of the gilled Chlorophyllum species in the Northwest, one or more sicken some people; it is uncertain which because in the past all three were called “Macrolepiota rachodes.”

Chlorophyllum rachodes (Vittadini) Vellinga
CAP 10–20 cm wide, convex becoming flat in age; disc cinnamon brown, smooth; margin like the disc at first, soon breaking up concentrically into smooth upturned cinnamon brown scales with white fibrous flesh showing between the scales. GILLS free, white, rarely tinged pale green, becoming red or brown when bruised, darkening in age, close, edges finely fringed, in two or three tiers. SPORE PRINT white or cream. STALK 10–20 cm long—about equal to the diameter of the cap, top 10–20 mm thick, club shaped, gradually swollen at the base or with a rounded bulb having a sloping top and no ridge, stuffed, smooth, white, surface darkening when bruised, cut flesh staining reddish or saffron. RING thick, persistent, membranous, movable like a ring on a finger, with two edges—one turned up and one turned down, edges fibrous and tattered, above white, below with brown cuticle that darkens in age. ODOR not remarkable. TASTE not remarkable. HABIT scattered to gregarious. HABITAT compost, rich soil, gardens. EDIBILITY edible and choice but may sicken some people—see notes. SPORES 8.8–12.7 × 5.4–7.9 µm, globose to pyriform, with a small germ pore, dark reddish brown in Melzer’s, contents become red when mounted in 3–5% KOH or NH4OH and stained with Congo red. CHEILOCYSTIDIA globose to pyriform. PLEUROCYSTIDIA absent. CAP CUTICLE compact interwoven hymeniform layer, cells irregularly constricted. NOTES Salient features that distinguish C. rachodes from C. brunneum: C. rachodes has double-edged ring and a stalk base that is either gradually swollen or is a bulb with a sloping top that never has a ridge; C. brunneum has a ring with a single edge and its stalk base is an abrupt bulb with a flattened top that often has a ridged perimeter. Cultures of C. rachodes rarely produce mushrooms. Edibility Of the gilled Chlorophyllum species in the Northwest, one or more sicken some people; it is uncertain which because in the past all three were called “Macrolepiota rachodes.” Occasional clusters have fused gills; examination of these sterile gills has not revealed a parasite, but consumption is discouraged. Look-alike The poisonous Chlorophyllum molybdites (Meyer ex Fries) Massee looks like C. rachodes but is not known to grow in the Pacific Northwest.

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Comments

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C. rachodes for comparison
By: David (dhpgetsit)
2010-12-30 20:39:44 PST (-0800)
Nice post, John
By: Martin Livezey (MLivezey)
2010-12-30 18:11:52 PST (-0800)

I recently posted some similar photos of Chlorophyllum rhacodes; I think the name is consistent with the descriptions in your post.
http://mushroomobserver.org/61329?q=3CkS

Created: 2009-11-24 07:59:30 PST (-0800)
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