Found this little Jelly fungus growing on wood. What im trying to figure out is what are all the little white fungi growing all about. After the snow has melted and the sun has come out and they seem to be everywhere on logs that have no bark. They seem to be growing with this Ascocoryne.
[admin – Sat Aug 14 02:00:36 +0000 2010]: Changed location name from ‘Gatewood Rd &Conard Rd area Fayette. Co. West Virginia’ to ‘near Gatewood Rd. and Cunard Rd., Oak Hill, West Virginia, USA’
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could be the anamorphs belonging to Ascocoryne. They are usually more coloured, at least pinkish. It’s not impossible that there are more than two species (sarcoides and cylichnium) to consider here (or even Ombrophila sp.).
I stole this key from the german “Pilze Pilze Forum Archive”
(I don’t know how long it stays available there):
KEY TO ASCOCORYNE
H.O. Baral + E. Weber, Oct. 2000
Highly constant among the many studied fresh collections proved the lipid pattern (multiguttulate versus 2(-4) very large and several small LBs) in the mature (aseptate) ascospores which readily allows to recognize the two sections (cylichnium vs. sarcoides). The immature spores, however, contain many small LBs (multiguttulate) in both sections. Due to strong coalescence in dead material, this striking difference is exclusively constant in living material and should especially be examined from spores within living asci. The two sections can further be distinguished by the consistency of the apothecia (distribution and abundance of gel), the presence of crystals, by the presence of conidiomata, and by the type of spore germination. Only the latter two features have so far been used in the literature. The genus is somewhat variable concerning paraphysis shape and content, spore size and shape, and ascus size. No differences between the species could be found in the type of apical apparatus.
Spore germination: Ascospores are always aseptate and with high lipid content within the living mature asci. Both formation of septa and germination (including budding) occur only in overmature spores. Overmature spores are those which have undergone post-maturation either outside the asci after active discharge, or within dead asci which have not managed spore discharge. Thus conidia are never forcibly ejected and cannot be termed ascoconidia as is frequently done in this genus, and apothecia in optimal developmental state may completely be devoid of septate spores and conidia. In order to obtain germinating spores and conidia in great abundance, apothecia are kept in a moist box for some days or weeks (at 10-20°).
In contrast to this, overmature material of A. sarcoides may contain some or many living asci with overmature spores (with 1-septum and c. 5-15 µm long germ tubes, partly as conidia in chains). This situation is clearly unphysiological, and effective spore discharge seems most unlikely with such germ tubes.
The purplish-violet pigment stains the medium distinctly blood-red when adding KOH (cylichnium).
1. Living ascospores with 2(-4) large symmetrically arranged LBs (1.5-) 2.5-4.5 µm diam. which are clearly evident among the many smaller ones, 11-29 × 3.8-6 µm, ends rounded or tapered, overmature with 0-1-3 septa, producing moniliform, c. 15-40 µm long chains of limoniform to (terminally) globose, firmly cohering blastoconidia 2-6.5 × 1.8-3.6 µm, [solitaria nicht??!!], conidia not disarticulating; hymenium deep purplish-violet or light greyish-brown, often associated with clavate to stipitate conidiomata, asci IKI 3BB or RB, arising from croziers; whole medulla strongly gelatinized (gel hyaline, macroscopically appearing glassy, apothecia therefore highly gelatinous (elastic), strongly compressible), composed of very narrow hyphae (/1-3 (-5) µm) embedded in usually abundant gel (gel sheaths in young apothecia or near excipulum refractive), entirely without crystals, subhymenium non-gelatinized → 2 (section sarcoides)
1. Living ascospores constantly multiguttulate (mixture of many small and medium-sized LBs, the latter 1-2 (-2.7) µm diam. and distributed through the whole spore), *16-29 (-35) x 4.4-6 (-7) µm, ends always ±tapered, overmature with (1-)3-5(-6) septa, producing subglobose (-ellipsoid), not cohering phialoconidia *2-3 ((-4.5)) x 1.9-2.4 µm on extremely short phialides (0.2-1.2 × 0.6 µm), sometimes also on germ tubes; hymenium deep purplish-violet, never producing distinct conidiomata; outer medulla (c. 100-200 µm) medium gelatinized, hyaline (apothecia therefore only slightly gelatinous), asci IKI 3BB, arising from croziers or from simple septa → 4 (section cylichnium)
2. Hymenium light greyish-reddish-brown with carneo-violet tint, (1-) 2-6 (-12) mm diam., with rather long, conical stalk; spores with 2(-4) large LBs 1.5-2.5 (-3) µm diam., overmature 0-1-septate, germ tubes not moniliform; asci IKI BB; apices of paraphyses cylindrical to medium clavate, */(1.5-) 2.5-4.5 µm, upper 8-30 µm medium refractive multiguttulate, conidiomata (Coryne albida) stipitate-capitate, c. 1-3 × .... mm, singly but gregarious, pale flesh-coloured, cells of conidiophore medium to strongly inflated (bulb/onion-shaped to globose), containing a refractive KOH-soluble crystal, conidia *3-3.5 × 1-1.2 µm, slightly to medium allantoid, 1 minute LB in each end; medullary hyphae sometimes multiguttulate; on wood of stems and branches of Fagus, Quercus, Betula, Carpinus, on cones of Pinus (only anamorph), slightly to strongly rotten, in shady, humid woods, e.g. in creeks → A. solitaria
2. Hymenium deep purplish-violet, 3-22 mm diam., sessile to rather long-stalked, ascospores overmature mainly 1-3-septate, germ tubes strongly moniliform (chains of cohering conidia), conidiomata absent (?or cushion-shaped) or clavate or flabelliform, conidiophores narrowly fusoid to cylindrical, without plasmatic crystals → 3
3. Ascospores with quite constantly ± tapered ends, *(14-) 17-27 (-28.5) x 4.4-6 µm, slightly to medium curved, homopolar, large LBs 2.8-4.5 µm, conidia of germ tubes *3.2-3.6 µm wide; asci IKI 3BB, paraphyses mostly very strongly capitate, upper cell *6-27 x (3-) 4-7 µm, ±without contents, apothecia 3-10 mm diam., sessile, 1-5 mm thick, lentiform-cushion-shaped, margin ± appressed to substrate, deep purplish, sometimes associated by small conidiomata (0.5-1 mm high, irregularly cerebriform, pale rosaceous-purpuraceous, non-gelatinous) growing in separate populations (phialides *10-15/1.8 µm, conidia *4-4.5 × 1 µm, medium allantoid); on very rotten wood or bark of branches of Fraxinus, Fagus, Alnus, shady woods, creeks or Alneta → A. disciformis sp. nov.
HB 3121, 6772, 6788a, 6810, 6838
3. Ascospores with constantly ± rounded ends, *11-23 (-27) x 3.8-5.5 µm, partly heteropolar, two large LBs (2-) 2.5-3.5 (-4) µm diam., conidia of germ tubes *1.8-2.8 µm wide; asci IKI RB/BB; paraphyses slightly to medium inflated; apothecia 3-22 mm diam., on a ± conspicuous stalk, c. 4-10 mm high, obconical-turbinate, stipe often distinct, not rarely higher than wide, margin not appressed to substrate, always associated with conidiomata (Coryne dubia, these occur mostly in much higher number than apothecia): stipitate, clavate to flabelliform conidiomata, without delimited head, c. 2.5-15 × 1-5 (-15) mm, often fasciculate, deep purplish-violet, phialides *9-15 (-20) x 1.3-1.5 µm, conidia *(2.8-) 3.3-5.5 × 1-1.4 µm, slightly (to medium) allantoid, 1 minute LB (or 0.6-0.8 µm) near each end, some with small polar appendage so that conidia at first loosely cohere in chains; on wood or often on bark of branches, stems and stumps of Fagus, Quercus, Alnus, Prunus, Carpinus, Castanea, Acer, Pinus, Larix (never on Picea?), often undecayed or only slightly rotten (rarely ??strongly rotten), in creeks or shady woods, ?slightly xerotolerant → A. sarcoides
4. Spores *16-20 (-22) x 4.4-5 µm, subfusoid, 2 LBs 1.8-2.3 µm & 2 LBs 1-1.8 µm among ± many small ones (intermediate sizes frequent), overmature (1-) 3-septate, conidia on spores *2-3 × 2-2.4 µm, with 1 large LB, sometimes also on long germ tubes (rarley as chains!); medullary hyphae below hymenium +2-4.5 µm wide, in distinct gel, no crystals; paraphyses around ascogenous hyphae non-gelatinized???; asci *175-222 × 9.3-10.5 µm, arising from croziers; apices of paraphyses cylindrical, */2-2.4 µm, with elongate VBs; apothecia 2-5.5 mm diam.; conidiomata ?slimy mass near apothecia, phialides *13-15 × 1.8-2.5 µm, conidia *2.5-3 × 1.3 µm, ±straight, on wood of branch of Picea, very rotten → A. conifericola
HB 4248 (Nürtingen)
4. Spores (19-) 22-30 (-35) x (4.2-) 5-6 (-7) µm, always ±fusoid, overmature 3- or 4-5(-6)-septate, inner medulla (500-1000 µm) of rather dense texture of wide hyphae (*5-12 (-17.5) µm) embedded in little non-refractive gel, pale purpuraceous, nearly always with abundant crystals and druses (hyaline or pupuraceous, mainly below subhymenium), paraphyses around ascogenous hyphae mostly gelatinized, asci *10.5-14.6 µm wide → 5
5. Spores (20-) 24-29 (-33) x (4.2-) 5.2-5.6 µm, large LBs in spores 1-2 (-2.7) µm diam., spores overmature mainly 3-, also 4-5-septate, paraphyses slightly clavate, with ± large 1-2refr. VBs, asci *208-230 × 11.3-12.3 µm, with croziers, on coniferous wood, e.g. in creeks, in cluture only subglobose conidia → A. “Evi”
5. Spores of same size, large LBs in ascospores 1-1.5 (-1.8) µm diam., overmature (3-4-)5(-6)-septate, in culture both allantoid and subglobose conidia produced → 6
6. Asci arising from simple septa (always with basal downward protuberance); conidia 2.5-3 × 1.9-2.3 µm, with 1 large and/or several ±small LBs; paraphyses slightly to medium (-strongly) capitate/clavate, upper cell *33-60 × 2.8-4 or 4-5.3 µm, upper 6-27 µm (2-3refractive) multiguttulate; apothecia 1.5-20 mm diam., 1-5mm tall; on wood of branches of Alnus, Fagus, Picea, ?Carpinus, colline & montane, mostly in humid woods, e.g. creeks → A. cylichnium var. deuncinata var. nov.
HB 4253, 6255a, 4340, 6793, 6791, 6800b, 6839.
6. Asci arising from croziers; conidia *(1.9-) 2.3-3 (-4.5) x (1.5-) 1.7-2.2 (-2.4) µm, either 4-8 small LBs or 1 large; paraphyses not or only slightly clavate, upper cell 21-35 × 1.7-3.5 µm, upper 8-24 µm 1-2refr. multiguttulate; medullary cells with large SCBs (3-5 µm) ?near margin; apothecia 4-22 mm diam.; on wood of stems, stumps or branches of Fagus, Salix, Carpinus, Fraxinus, Quercus, Populus, also not rarely on Abies, Picea, Pinus, little to strongly rotten, in shady humid woods, especially in creeks → A. cylichnium var. cylichnium
Table of characters
asci () crz IKI ascospores () LB septa grm med cry ans aps ap an par ht og
disciformis 146-185(190?) x (10.5)11.5-12.3(13) + BB (14)17-27(29) x 4.4-6 µm 2 1-3 mo gel – cr us f m 3-4 d wb
sarcoides (120)140-180(200) x 9.3-13((14.5)) + RB (11.5)14-21(26) x (3.8)4.2-5(5.3) 2 1-3 mo gel – cl st m f 0-3 cd wb
solitaria 115-155 × 9.5-11 + BB (11)14-17(19) x 4.1-4.8 µm 2 1 hy gel – st st r f 1 cd wc
conifericola 175-222 × 9.3-10.5 + BB 16-20(22 × 4.4-5 m (1)3 co gel – sl st f ? 1 c w
Evi 208-230 × 11.3-12.3 + BB (20)24-29(33) x (4.2)5.2-5.6 m 3(5) co th + – st r – 1 c w
cylichnium 175-275 × 10.5-13.5 + BB (20)22-28(30) x (4.7)5-6(6.4) m (3)5 co th + – st f – 1 cd w
deuncinata 160-265 × 10.5-14.6 – BB 22-30 × 5-6.3(7) m (3)5(6) co th + – st f – 1 cd w
Expl.: crz (croziers); IKI (Lugol); LB (large lipid bodies): 2 = 2 large LBs, m = multiguttulate; grm (germination): hy = normal germ tubes, mo = moniliform germ tubes with globose conidia in terminal chains, co = single subglobose conidia; med (medulla): gel = whole medulla highly gelatinous, of narrow hyphae, apothecia highly elastic, th = main upper part little gelatinous, of thick hyphae, apothecia rather tough, only slightly elastic; cry (oxalate crystals in medulla); ans (anamorph shape): sl = slimy mass, cr = cerebriform-cushion-shaped, non-gelatinous, cl = clavate to flabelliform, st = stipitate with globose head; aps (apothecial shape): st = +/- stalked, us = unstalked, wholly appressed to substratew; ap (apothecia): f = frequent, m = medium frequent, r = rare; an (anamorph): dto.; par (paraphyses): apex 1 = slightly inflated, 3 = strongly inflated (capitate); ht (host): c = coniferous, d = deciduous; og (organ): b = bark, w = wood, c = cones.
Created: 2010-01-19 11:38:11 EST (-0500)
Last modified: 2011-04-08 13:59:34 EDT (-0400)
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