Observation 34762: Lyophyllum paelochroum Clémençon
When: 2010-03-13
Herbarium specimen reported

Notes: Tricholoma-like fungi growing on soil in grassy areas, usually under Betula pendula. There were a lot of them fruiting in various suburban locations our area in the cold summer of 2009 while in several previous years there weren’t any.
These fungi are quite variable in size and stature ranging from large and heavy to rather small and slender ones. The one distinctive feature is the slow but intensive bluish-black discoloration on gills when bruised.

Proposed Names

54% (1)
Recognized by sight: Any particular smell/taste?
76% (2)
Eye3 Eyes3
Based on microscopic features: globose smooth spores 5-6 μm dia.

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus

Comments

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L. paelochroum is more than just promising :)
By: Tatiana Bulyonkova (ressaure)
2010-03-17 06:52:48 CDT (-0400)

Thank you again, Irene!

Stem cylindrical or slightly widened at base – true for most specimens, only some specimens, usually those growing in sunny spots, had thick stems tapering downwards.
Cap 30-60 mm, convex to expanded, with innate radial fibrils, ochraceous to yellowish brown, not hygrophanous; gills adnate, medium spaced, cream, turning bluish, later blackish when bruised; stem 30-50 × 6-10 mm, whitish to pale buff – true again;
smell rancid farinaceous to cucumber-like; taste mild – the smell, as far as I remember, was mealy in the more generic sense of that definition, and no particular taste, so it fits.
Sp 4-7 × 4-6.5 μm, globose to subglobose, smooth__ – true;
In parks and copses on clay; – this describes the locations perfectly well – they were mostly untended lawns (i.e. with all sorts of herbacious plants) with some trees around, e.g. a local schoolyard.
very rare in temp. – true again, otherwise it wouldn’t be a problem to identify – these fungi were very conspicuous, fruiting in groups in short, scarce grass here and there around the residential area of Akademgorodok, so it’s unlikely that I’d missed them in previous years.

Speaking about bluish-black staining Lyophyllums, the previous candidate, Lyophyllum infumatum, is reported from the Altai mountains (appr. 600 km south from here) according to the latest monograph on Western Siberian macromycetes (N. Perova, I. Gorbunova, 2001), along with Lyophillum semitale in Tomsk region (several hundred km to the north).

Three remaining species
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2010-03-16 14:34:27 CDT (-0400)

with this colour change and globose spores:
Lyophyllum eustygium
Lyophyllum caerulescens
Lyophyllum paelochroum

This group of species is incredibly confusing. Not only to me… Lyophyllum crassifolium and Lyophyllum immundum are names that have been used frequently earlier, probably on all three of these species.
I have descriptions in Funga Nordica, but I don’t find them descriptive enough to really tell the species apart – and I don’t trust many pictures on the web when it comes to Lyophyllum either..

Well, here we go:

“….
4. Sp globose to subglobose; frb ± blackening in all parts 5

5. Cap and stem whitish to greyish cream, becoming greyish to sordid brown with age or when bruised. Cap 30-80 mm, convex to expanded, not hygrophanous, but sometimes marbled; gills emarginate, medium spaced, cream, soon becoming grey, turning bluish, later blackish when bruised or immediately blackening; stem 40-80 × 10-20 mm, cylindrical to clavate, sometimes with pointed-tapering base, floccose at top; smell farinaceous-rancid; taste adstringent to bitter or mild and farinaceous. Sp 5-7 × 4.5-6 μm, subglobose, smooth (fig. 499C). In deciduous forests on calcareous soil and in rich coniferous forests, often near species of Cortinarius subgen. Phlegmacium; autumn; rare in temp.-hemib.; DK (EN), NO (EN), SE (DD). – C&D 467 (as amariusculum), FAD 25C, Svp 43:11, Ves 209.
L. eustygium (Cooke) Clémençon (L. crassifolium (Berk.) Singer s. auct.)

- Cap ochraceous to yellowish brown or greyish brown 6

6. Stem distinctly tapering towards base. Cap 40-100 mm, convex to bell-shaped, later expanded to depressed, smooth, shiny, ochraceous to yellowish brown or greyish brown, often with darker centre, slightly hygrophanous, not translucently striate; gills adnate, distant, whitish to pale grey, turning bluish, later blackish when bruised; stem 25-80 × 5-15 mm, often compressed, pruinose, becoming smooth, whitish to pale grey; smell strongly rancid; taste mild. Sp 6-7 μm, globose, smooth (fig. 499D). In deciduous and coniferous forests; DE. – Lud 44.19.
L. caerulescens Clémençon

- Stem cylindrical or slightly widened at base. Cap 30-60 mm, convex to expanded, with innate radial fibrils, ochraceous to yellowish brown, not hygrophanous; gills adnate, medium spaced, cream, turning bluish, later blackish when bruised; stem 30-50 × 6-10 mm, whitish to pale buff; smell rancid farinaceous to cucumber-like; taste mild. Sp 4-7 × 4-6.5 μm, globose to subglobose, smooth (fig. 499E); sometimes with scattered, up to 50 μm long, cylindrical to fusiform cheilocystidia. In parks and copses on clay; summer to autumn; very rare in temp.; DK (NT). – Lud 44.21, M&J 4, Svp 18:89.
L. paelochroum Clémençon

…"

Thanks, Irene – and more issues
By: Tatiana Bulyonkova (ressaure)
2010-03-16 11:19:24 CDT (-0400)

… visually it’s a perfect match to L. deliberatum, however, I looked at the spores and they were neither large nor rhomboid, i.e. nearly round (no perceptible narrow and long sides) and rather small (5-6 mu). Also the spores were uniformly tinged (bluish or grayish, hard to say, no warm hues) while spores of fresh specimens were white in mass.

Lyophyllum sections
By: Irene Andersson (irenea)
2010-03-14 06:34:31 CDT (-0400)

Non-amyloid spores.
Sect. Difformia: Frb often caespitose or connate; flesh conspicuously firm;
Sect. Tephrophana: Frb solitary to subcaespitose; flesh not conspicuously firm (=genus Tephrocybe);
Sect. Lyophyllum: Gills turning bluish to blackish when bruised; flesh blackening when cut (at least in some of them).
Check if Lyophyllum deliberatum/infumatum is a possibility. It needs microscopy (large, rhomboid spores) to assure that it’s not something else..

Porpoloma contains at least one species (metapodium) which is bruising red, finally turning black. The spores are amyloid.

Thanks for the versions,
By: Tatiana Bulyonkova (ressaure)
2010-03-13 16:13:01 CST (-0500)

it’s not likely that it’s T. virgatum, the cap surface is smooth. It looks more like a Lyophyllum but its flesh isn’t as elastic and rubbery as that of a Lyophyllum, in this aspect it’s closer to a Tricholoma or Calocybe. My best bet is that it’s a Porpoloma (the black staining is typical for some species of the Genus), but I can’t find an exact match.

T. virgatum
By: Paul Derbyshire (Twizzler)
2010-03-13 14:58:02 CST (-0500)

seems to be the closest match in Lincoff. Discoloring white gills are specifically mentioned. Problem is, T. virgatum occurs under conifers and has an umbo. These mostly seem to lack an umbo (one or two show vague hints of one), no conifer duff is visible in the photos, and you say they were growing under birch.

Created: 2010-03-13 13:16:18 CST (-0500)
Last modified: 2010-03-13 13:16:18 CST (-0500)
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