Observation 78261: Conocybe siliginea (Fr. :Fr.) Kuhner
When: 2011-10-06
Who: Byrain
No herbarium specimen

Notes: Growing on a lawn, the spores are smooth with an apical germ pore.

Images

173098
173099
173100
173101
173102
173103
173104
173105
173106
Spores from gill
1000x
Mounted in KOH
1μ divisions
173107
Spores from gill
1000x
Mounted in KOH
1μ divisions
173108
Spores from gill
1000x
Mounted in H20
1μ divisions
173109
Spores from gill
1000x
Mounted in H2O
1μ divisions
173110
Pileipellis
1000x
Mounted in H2O
1μ divisions
173414
Stipe trama?
400x
Mounted in H2O
2.44μ divisions
173415
Spores on stipe
1000x
Mounted in H2O
1μ divisions
174061
Chrysocystidia? On the gill edge.
1000x
Mounted in KOH
1μ divisions
174062
Spore print, image created from two stacked photos with combineZP.
1000x
Mounted in KOH
174063
Spore print
1000x
Mounted in KOH
1μ divisions
174064
Clamp connections
1000x
Mounted in KOH
1μ divisions
174065
177520

Proposed Names

57% (1)
Recognized by sight
92% (2)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight: I’m still not sure about C. siliginea vs. C. rickenii or if this is the same as the European material, but I do think this is the same as what Douglas has been finding so I’ll stick to the same name for now.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus

Comments

Add Comment
C. rickenii vs. C. siliginea
By: Byrain
2011-10-13 03:33:52 CDT (-0500)

They look similar to your C. siliginea observations, but for the diameter, what part should be measured, the cap? 5-13 mm would make for some would make for some small specimens which mine were larger then. Otherwise, I would think they’d fit more with C. siliginea. Between the cap colors, wrinkled non-shiny cap (When it wasn’t pouring).

Ok, then…
By: Douglas Smith (douglas)
2011-10-12 23:50:38 CDT (-0500)

Yeah, now those look like good caulocystidia shots. So, you have clusters there of lageniform and filimentous cystidia. No lecythiform cystidia then, so that takes to that section. I see that the basidia are 2-spored, and then with that spores size, I get to C. siliginea in Flora Agericina Neerlandica vol 6. You can compare to my obs. of those, and the micro-photos I have there.

Looking at Funga Nordica, you go down the key, and you get to a split, between C. rickenii and C. siliginea. C. rickenii is 7-50mm in diameter, distinctly olive at first, smooth and shiny. C. siliginea is 5-13mm in diameter, buff to grey buff to whitish, somewhat wrinkled, not shiny.

(BTW – F.A.N. makes synonyms of those two species… so you can choose which to follow…)

As for sources, looking on-line, I don’t actually see Flora Agaricina Neerlandica on sale anywhere anymore. The Fungi Europaei is probably too expensive and specific, in terms of place and species covered, to be worth it. Although it is a nice book with photos and all. But for a good general source, I would recommend Funga Nordica, since it tries to cover all Boletales and Agaricales in northern Europe. There is something like 4000 species keyed out in that book. Heavy on micro-details, and no photos, and only short descriptions of each species, but as a highly detailed general guide it is very useful. Also with keys in the start on how to get to genus, so it can help in just starting from nothing but and unknown mushroom and get you to species. Something like keys to 200 genera of mushrooms in that book. So with that you’ll get Conocybe, Pholiotina, Agrocybe, and a whole lot more…

Hey – if you are thinking about looking at Agrocybe, make sure to take good notes on where and when you got them, good photos, and dry them, and keep them safe in zip-look bags, in a dry cool place. I’m thinking about collecting some Agrocybe this year, and there is some slight evidence that Agrocybe maybe should get split into two very different genera. But it would be good to get more good material there to look at, since no one really collects those.

Douglas
By: Byrain
2011-10-12 19:48:39 CDT (-0500)

Thanks, that was very helpful, I took another look at the upper stipe and I feel pretty sure I found caulocystidia this time. I feel my preparation made it difficult to photo any of the clusters except one.

And the list of references is just what I was looking for, I’ll see what I can do about getting hold of some of them. Even if they are for europe, I would like to learn the genus better, along with the others in Flora Agaricina Neelandica vol. 6.

Edit: I added one more caulocystidia picture which shows some variation.

Conocybe sources…
By: Douglas Smith (douglas)
2011-10-12 14:02:15 CDT (-0500)

Well, there is a problem with Conocybe study in California (problem? perhaps opportunity?), that there isn’t too much done here. Mushroom Demystified does admit that as a source it isn’t going to cover little brown jobs in that much detail, so yeah, if you follow that source most Conocybe end up at C. tenera. So, going beyond that you get to various European works on Conocybe. Which there are a few, but perhaps somewhat expensive, hard to find, and might not work well with California material.

But I usually use Flora Agaricina Neelandica vol. 6, which has a good Conocybe section there, along with Bolbitius, Pholiotina, Agrocybe, so it is a nice ref. for the whole family of species. But this series is out of print now, sometimes you can find used copies on Amazon for not much (and other copies for ridiculous prices.).

There is a somewhat new source from Fungi Europaei by Anton Hausknecht called “A monograph of the genera Conocybe Pholiotina in Europe”, which covers the genus very well in Europe. This was published in 2010, and you should be able to get it, but you might have to order it shipped from Europe, and probably cost a bit, over $100.

There is a fairly good key of Conocybe in Funga Nordica, which was written by Hausknecht, and covers over 60 species. This has terse descriptions, and no photos, but useful, and as a source it is one of the few general sources on mushrooms species in one work, although it is focused on northern Europe. For more general work to compare with Europe, and if you are using the scope, it might be good to have the shelf, but probably have to order it shipped from Europe, and will cost like $100.

And I think that might be it for good sources. With the caveat that they might be hard to get, maybe expensive, and really are for Europe, and there is no reason to think that they will work well for California material.

But if you post enough info, I’ll probably end up going through the sources myself, just because I’ll want to know… so maybe you don’t need them yourself…

But after saying that, I’m not sure you have caulocystidia just yet. In the last photo there you’ve got a good photo of the cheilocystidia, which you need to see first, to make sure you really have a Conocybe, and not some other small thin little brown job, like Pholiotina, or even Galerina. But the caulocystidia on Conocybe usually comes in tight bunches, not just simple single free cells. You can see this with a hand lens in the field, where there are lines of white fine pruinose fibers on the upper stipe, going length-wise down the stipe. You can compare to various photos I’ve taken of the caulocystidia here:

http://mushroomobserver.org/8443
http://mushroomobserver.org/8444
http://mushroomobserver.org/65279
http://mushroomobserver.org/34178
http://mushroomobserver.org/10195
http://mushroomobserver.org/46696

Usually I find these by taking a slice from the upper stipe, and mounting it in KOH (some prefer Congo Red, doesn’t matter, you can use water if you wish), and crushing it well. Trying to separate the length-wise structural hyphae in the stipe surface. Then you can scan around at 100x and look for the small clusters on the edges of the crushed material. The photos of the caulocystidia I’ve take at 400x and that is fine to see the whole clusters and the type of cystidia shapes are there.

Hmm… not sure if this all is help or not?

Thanks.
By: Byrain
2011-10-12 11:27:58 CDT (-0500)

Now I just need a good Conocybe key, trying the one in MD took me to Conocybe tenera group and then showed me how the spore range for C. tenera is too small…

Ditto
By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2011-10-12 10:23:49 CDT (-0500)

Great work.

hey,
By: Matt Sherman (Shermanii)
2011-10-12 10:10:20 CDT (-0500)

Very nice observation Byrain!
I really appreciate it when folks add all of their extra work on an identification for all to see.
It really helps everyone learn.
Thanks!

Spore measurements & chrysocystidia?
By: Byrain
2011-10-11 18:13:20 CDT (-0500)

I uploaded a few more micro pictures, including a golden colored cystidia-like structure mounted in KOH, would this be chrysocystidia?

I also measured 50 spores, the spore range is 13-16 × 7-9 (10) μ, the average spore size is 14.56 × 8.09 μ, and the average Q is 1.81. The individual spore measurements are:

13×7
13×7
13×7
13×8
13×8
14×7
14×7
14×7
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×8
14×9
14×9
14×9
15×7
15×7
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8
15×8.5
15×9
15×9
15×9
15×9
15×9
15×9
15×9
16×7
16×8
16×8
16×9
16×9
16×9

Edit:

The capitluum range is 3-5 × 3-5 μ and the average size is 4.06 × 3.88 μ. 33 were measured.

Caulocystidia
By: Byrain
2011-10-09 05:33:32 CDT (-0500)

I added some caulocystidia pictures and what I think is the stipe trama. Spore measurements and the size of the capitluum (If its needed) will have to wait for after I wake up.

Well…
By: Douglas Smith (douglas)
2011-10-08 19:41:35 CDT (-0500)

There is some splitting of species based on the size of the capitluum (the round end) on the cheilocystidia. The caulocystidia on the stipe you need to just see what kinda they are, with round ends? Filimentous? Cylindrical? Globose? and such like that. Sections of Conocybe are defined on the shapes of the caulocystidia on the upper stipe.

Not yet.
By: Byrain
2011-10-08 19:19:27 CDT (-0500)

I’ll look for the caulocystidia and get better spore measurements tonight. Are any of the cystidia important to measure in Conocybe?

Cute,
By: Douglas Smith (douglas)
2011-10-08 17:55:50 CDT (-0500)

Nice guys, good work so far. Did you look at the surface of the upper stipe, to see what the caulocystidia might look like?

Created: 2011-10-08 05:53:46 CDT (-0500)
Last modified: 2011-10-24 23:09:14 CDT (-0500)
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