Observation 79376: Ochrolechia A. Massal.

When: 2011-09-24

Collection location: Serra de São Mamede, Portugal [Click for map]

Who: zaca

No specimen available

I’m affraid I didn’t understand very well these chemical reactions.
Average dimensions of spores:
Me = 57.4 × 37.7 µm ; Qe = 1.5 (N = 27).


Chemical reactions in site.
Chemical reactions with scope.

Proposed Names

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Add Comment
Thanks, Jason.
By: zaca
2011-10-12 18:27:13 CDT (-0400)

I will compare the species you mentioned with the ckecklist of neighbor countries. I have not time now, but I will look carefully to the key you just add.

Bruce Ryan
By: Jason Hollinger (jason)
2011-10-12 18:18:13 CDT (-0400)

Forgot to check Bruce Ryan’s keys:

GROUP IIIb. On rock; not sorediate or isidiate (After Howard and Verseghy, and Brodo, 1988 and unpubl.; probably incomplete)

1. Apothecia + pertusarioid, opening by 1 or more pores (or sometimes appearing lecanorine according to Thomson), in raised, basally constricted warts ca. 4-5 mm across, the disc or apical portion C+, KC+ red (gyrophoric acid) or C-, KC+ red (alectoronic acid), usually also with variolaric acid. Thallus yellowish or rosy white. Spores 8, ellipsoid, 36-87 × 25-45 um. On calcareous or acidic rocks. Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia to Alaska. ……………….. 2

1. Apothecia lecanorine, with expanded disc at least when mature, not in pertusarioid warts. ………………………………. 3

2. Gyrophoric acid abundant in the superficial ascomatal tissues (upper part of hymenium, sometimes extending into part of the disk); alectoronic acid minor, confined to discontinuous areas within the medulla; variolaric acid and lecanoric acid often present; sometimes lacking either variolaric or alectoronic acids (never both). Apothecial verrucae 4-5 mm broad, appearing as if apothecia of a Lecanora, projecting above thallus, often containing a number of deeply embedded apothecia with small pale, depressed ostioles showing in folds of upper side, ostioles, giving a rosulate appearance; underside almost umbilicate. Hypothecium pale to dark brown; epihymenium pale to yellow-brown or dark brown, K-; hymenium hyaline to pink; spores (4-6-)8, mainly biseriate, walls double, both thin, outer and inner each 1-2 um thick, smoth and without thickened tips, ovoid to ellipsoid, 16-74 × 9-45 um. Thallus generally rather thick, minutely rimose-areolate and somewhat dispersed; margins indistinct; areoles flat or convex, yellowish or roseate white, lacking soredia and isidia. Cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV-; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, UV-, P-. On mountain tops. Arctic. …………….. O. subplicans (Nyl.) Brodo subsp. subplicans

2. Gyrophoric acid in low concentration, confined to the epihymenium; alectoronic acid the major substance (in thallus and apothecia?); variolaric acid and traces of lecanoric acid also present. Apothecial verrucae usually hemispherical with 1-2(-3) ostioles and not rosulate. Thallus usually thin, rather smooth, continous, only becoming rimose in patches. On the seacoast. ……………. O. subplicans subsp. hultenii (Erichs.) Brodo

3. Thallus C+ pink-orange (fleeting) or C-, but KC+ red (gyrophoric acid); discs C+ and KC+ red. Thallus papillate-coralloid, ochre-white, 3-6 mm thick, fragile; disc scabrous to smooth, pruinose or not. Usually on soil, etc. …………………… (see O. frigida)

3. Thallus C- and KC- (without gyrophoric acid); discs C+ red. [Note: rare saxicolous thalli of O. upsaliensis from Arctic-alpine areas will also key out here, but they have C- or + yellow discs). need more info on “O. howardii” to key out the following taxa. ………………………………… 4

4. Apothecia to 5(-8) mm diam.; discs pale brown to dull orange-pink. Thallus often very thick (to 3 mm or more), tartareous, often with numerous irregular warts forming an uneven, corrugate crust, sometimes with a paler zoned margin and a pale prothallus, pale to dark gray. Apothecia usually frequent, immersed and closed at first, rounded or irregular, scattered or crowded, sessile; thalline exciple thick, wavy. Discs concave to flat, not, or translucently, pruinose, the surface often scabrose-roughened, P-, K-, C+ orange-red, KC+ red; epithecium granular, the granules dissolving in K. Spores (35-)40-70 × 20-40 um, broadly ellipsoid. Medulla P-, K-, C+ orange-red, KC+ red (gyrophoric, + lecanoric acids). On siliceous boulders. A European species possibly incorrectly reported from N. America. ………. [O. tartarea (L.) Massal.]

4. Apothecia 0.75-1.75 mm; disks pink-orange. margins thick, prominent. (O. parella sensu Howard; I am not certain whether this taxon is a good one, nor if it is saxicolous; more info. needed). ……………. “O. howardii Brodo ined.”

ADD: Several additional unidentified saxicolous species.

Saxicolous Ochrolechia
By: Jason Hollinger (jason)
2011-10-12 17:41:11 CDT (-0400)

“Unfortunately the Ochrolechia species on rocks have not been studied as carefully in North America as the ones on bark.” [Sonoran Flora, under notes for O. parella]

There’s only one mentioned in Brodo 2001: O. yasudae which is abundantly isidate. (Big thick coralloid isidia, unmistakable; often fertile; both cortex and medulla C+pink/red, usually strong.)

Harris & Ladd 2007 also mention O. trochophora, and I’ve seen this frequently on rocks in southeastern North America. It has a strongly verrucose / warty thallus that, particularly on rocks, can almost look isidiate. It has C+r cortex but C- medulla (this requires a great deal of care to observe confidently).

There are only three mentioned in the Sonoran Flora from southwestern North America:

O. androgyna – sorediate
O. parella – C-/KC-/UV- or C+/KC+y/UV+white (but apothecia C+ red supposedly)
O. splendens / O. splendida (there must be a typo) – C+p/r UV+y

I’ve personally also seen another species in southern California which is C+/KC+ orange UV- but has C- apothecia. I haven’t found a name for it. I sent it off to Kerry Knudsen, maybe he’ll have something to say in the matter in December when he looks at it.

Lastly, there are a few species which grow on alpine mosses and plant debris, e.g., O. upsaliensis. But they’re very unlikely to occur in Portugal.

Naturally, I know nothing about European species!

Maybe there are.
By: zaca
2011-10-12 17:10:20 CDT (-0400)

Jason, can you recommend a key to this genus, specially for those growing on rock. Thanks.

Could be xanthones
By: Jason Hollinger (jason)
2011-10-12 14:16:05 CDT (-0400)

Several Ochrolechia have C+ and KC+ orange/red.

Created: 2011-10-12 13:12:44 CDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2011-10-12 13:31:44 CDT (-0400)
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