Observation 98004: Amanita cokeri (E.-J. Gilbert & Kühner) E.-J. Gilbert

When: 2012-06-22

Collection location: East Lakeshore Trails, Greenback, Loudon Co., Tennessee, USA [Click for map]

35.6695° -84.2385° 259m

Who: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)

Specimen available

Found in conifer dominated forest (Pinus sp with needles that occur in bundles of two, possilbe Pinus echinata). Within 20 feet of this collection however there was an Oak and a Poplar as well.

Basal bulb with concentric scales- would this be described as “cothurnate?”



Proposed Names

-9% (2)
Recognized by sight: Double ring, no odor
82% (1)
Based on chemical features: After the macroscopic morphology, the lack of odor was the thing that pushed us toward A. cokeri.

Please login to propose your own names and vote on existing names.

Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
You’re welcome.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-07-09 19:47:01 EDT (-0400)


Thanks again!
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2012-07-09 15:00:54 EDT (-0400)
The spores are consistent with an older specimen of A. cokeri
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-07-09 13:40:51 EDT (-0400)

…or one that didn’t go into the dryer for a day or so.

So I think that this is A. cokeri.

Thanks again for the collection.

Very best,


Thank you, Christine.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-07-06 15:15:51 EDT (-0400)

Your collection which is the voucher for this observation arrived in Roosevelt today; and Mary picked it up at the post office. Thanks for the sturdy packaging. The material is in good order. We also appreciate getting a copy of the printed form of the present page. When we have spore measurements, we’ll post them here.

Very best,


Lack of an odor corresponds to the southern taxon—A. cokeri.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-06-23 19:42:53 EDT (-0400)

And, if you’d be willing to send us part of the dried specimen, we can confirm the spore measurements and add your material and collecting location to the WAO website. I don’t think we have a Loudon County collection.


Thanks again!
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2012-06-23 17:20:14 EDT (-0400)

I could not detect an an odor of any sort, could we call this one A. subcokeri then?

I would not use the term “cothurnate” to described the volva in this species. [edit]
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-06-23 10:34:25 EDT (-0400)

Hello, Christine.

What appears to happen in cokeri and subcokeri is that bits of the volva become firmly attached to the surface of the bulb during development. This process holds a piece of the bulb’s surface tightly together and doesn’t allow expansion of that bit of surface even though the flesh of the bulb is expanding. Hence, the surface breaks under tension around the attached volval bit. Then these parts of the bulb surface with attached volval bits become the tips of scales that curve outward and downward (“recurved” scales). The scales become more and more separated as the bulb continues to expand. In the case of your specimen, you have an unusual phenomenon in that something provoked the stipe surface just above the bulb to split in a complete circle around the stem. So the ring around the stem base is stipe tissue and not volva. Hence, you can’t call it a cothurnate volva.

In Amanita, we have to be very careful to separate the bulb from the volval bits associated with the bulb. These are two different tissues with different histories during the development of the mushroom. Lots of people still use the word “volva” to mean the entire bulb. This really messes up the literature because sometimes a person who makes the clear distinction cannot understand what another person has written…what was written is (at least) ambiguous.

I see I jumped back and forth between saying “stipe” and saying “stem.” I hope that doesn’t make the above unreadable.

I hope the above helps.

Very best,


Bulb images added
By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2012-06-23 10:14:28 EDT (-0400)

Would this be described as “cothurnate?”

You’re welcome.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-06-22 22:53:10 EDT (-0400)


By: Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
2012-06-22 22:42:12 EDT (-0400)

I will add some pictures of the bulb tomorrow and check for the odor you describe.

I only know two lepidellas in eastern N. America that occasionally have a double ring.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-06-22 22:34:46 EDT (-0400)

I suppose there could be others, but the prime candidates are Amanita cokeri and Amanitasubcokeri.”

In a relatively young specimen like this, the former could well have no odor at all, while the younger would have a unique odor that to me suggests a combination of burnt sugar and cedar wood (like an old cedar chest or cedar-lined closet). The two have very similar morphology. The former has a more southern distribution; the second, a more northern distribution.

It looks like you dug up all or nearly all of the bulb. Can we get a side view of it? The recurved scales on the bulb can be found in both taxa. The spores of the two taxa are distinctly different.




Nice looking specimen. Nice pics.

To answer your question about the word “cothurnate”: That word describes the form of the volva of species in the pantherinoid group of section Amanita such as A. multisquamosa, A. velatipes, A. albocreata, A. pantherina, etc. Some people say that form of volva looks as though the bulb at the stipe base were wearing a sock with the top of the sock rolled down.

Very best,


Created: 2012-06-22 18:08:38 EDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2012-07-09 13:41:10 EDT (-0400)
Viewed: 284 times, last viewed: 2018-01-01 21:17:14 EST (-0500)
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