Observation 99324: Glomus Tul. & C. Tul.
When: 2012-07-06
No herbarium specimen

Proposed Names

13% (2)
Used references: Same as for Glomus. I can only say promising, as I have not personally found this before. Perhaps someone who has found it would be willing to add? Glomus is a very wide-spread genus, associating with a great many tree and shrub species worldwide.
47% (2)
Eye3
Recognized by sight
56% (1)
Eyes3
Recognized by sight

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus

Comments

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Eduardo
By: Danny Newman (myxomop)
2015-03-30 03:16:10 CDT (-0400)

is you microscope calibrated? if so, can you tell us the size of the spores you observed?

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-08-15 07:28:18 CDT (-0400)

En esta especie, la textura interior es granular, como arena fina, se desborona facilmente, de color marron-rojizo…

Texture?
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-08-15 06:15:17 CDT (-0400)

I have found Endogone several times, typically E. lactiflua and E. flammicorona, but once E. oregonense. I may have found Glomus once.

The only thing that might help identification now is the texture of the cut sporocarp, Eduardo. Endogone tends to have a crisp, brittle, hard texture when cut, similar to fresh apple, cashew or walnut. Glomus (if what I found was Glomus) has a softer texture, similar to a medium cheddar cheese.

Last mention I have
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-08-14 23:36:21 CDT (-0400)

is from 2007, in Field Guide to North American Truffles, by Matt Trappe, Frank Evans, and James Trappe. In this source, Endogone flammicorona is placed in the Zygomycota and Endogonaceae. Glomus microcarpum is placed in Glomeromycota and Glomeraceae.

A little side note: A few years ago, a fossilized Glomus-like fungus was found in fine silt-stone in British Columbia, dating back to the Devonian Period, also known as the Age of Fishes, about 400 million years ago. This fossil was so similar to Glomus is shape and size it was given the name Glomites. This is doubly interesting because it is believe that the first terrestrial plants made their way out of the sea onto land during the Devonian Period. Glomites was fossilized in the close presence of club moss roots.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-08-14 20:44:15 CDT (-0400)

Gracias, quisiera preguntarte cual es la clasificacion taxonomica actual de Endogone, Zygomicota o Glomeromycota. Veo en algunas referencias que algunas especies de Endogone las pasaron a Glomus…Tambien quisiera saber si las estructuras son zygosporos o clamidiosporos.

Thank you, Eduardo.
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-08-14 11:28:36 CDT (-0400)

I thought Endogone was totally mycorrhizae. Your citations had me checking that assumption, only to find several Endogone are apparently not mycorrhizal, but saprophytic or parasitic.

My experiences with Endogone have been with mycorrhizal association with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a mostly single-species plantation. In addition to your citation about E. fulva, I also found reference to E. pisiformis. I am enlightened. Thank you.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-08-14 07:42:30 CDT (-0400)

“Endogone grows in soil, on rotting wood, sphagnum or other plant material either as saprobes or ectomycorrhizal associates.”

Warcup JH. (1990). “Taxonomy, culture, and mycorrhizal associations of some zygosporic Endogonaceae”. Mycological Research 94: 173–78.

In the “Revision of Endogonaceae” from Roland Thaxter, this fungi is very similar to Endogone fulva (Berkeley) Patouillard,.. what do you think
?

Both Glomus and Endogone
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-08-14 02:42:35 CDT (-0400)

are members of the Zygomycetaceae. Both have exceptionally large spores, although many members of known Glomus species fruit as individual spores or clumps of spores (2-8) in soils.

Important to determining this obs. in my opinion, are the sterile base and sometimes present peridium. Also, there appears to be a browning (brunnescens?) at the point where the specimen was sectioned. While Glomus species tend to have much larger spores, the largest spores are more likely to fruit as individual spores or cluters of spores in the soil, and generally do not produce an identifiable sporocarp like this obs. has. Endogone, on the other hand, have slightly smaller sized spores well within the range of this obs.

Neither Glomus nor Endogone collections locally as associated with decaying woody debris. So it is quite possible this obs, found among decaying wood, is a separate species which has not yet been described in science.

For those following this, who
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-08-14 02:36:22 CDT (-0400)

like me are not bilingual, Eduardo has just announced new spore measurements for this obs: 125-150 × 50-70 microns.

Eduardo: just checked with my best available resource: “Key to Spores of the Genera of Hypogeous Fungi of North Temperate Forests with special reference to animal mycophagy”, by Michael A. Castellano, James M. Trappe, Zane Maser, & Chris Maser.

Under Endogone: “Shape and Size: Ellipsoid to globose or irregular, when sooth 27-150 × 27-120 microns, when mantled by adherent hyphae 52-150 × 41-190 microns (excluding the adherent hyphae).” There is a key to Endogone by Gerdemann an Trappe (1974): Gerdemann, J.G.; Trappe, J.M. The Endogonaceae in the Pacific Northwest. Mycol. Mem. 5:1-76; 1974.

Under Glomus: “Shape and Size: Globose to ellipsoid or pyriform, when smooth 20-310 × 18-305 microns, when ornamented or mantled by adherent hyphae 105-452 × 169-470 microns (excluding ornamentation of adherent hyphae). … Comments: Many Glomus spp. fruit as inividual spores in soil and are not usually eaten by animals. Only sporocarpic species are included in the range of characters outlined in the keys. Spores of all species form at the tip of a hyphae, a trait that is distinctive among hypogeous fungi to Glomus and 46-Sclerocystis. Sclerocystic species always have ellipsoid to narrowly clavate spores born in a crowded, single layer on the surface of the spoorcarp, whereas Glomus species generally have broadly ellipsoid to globose spores born randomly or in rows within the sporocarp.” Key included with Endogone above; also in Trappe, J.M. Synoptic keys to the genera and species of Zygomyceteous mycorrhizal fungi. Phytopathol. 72:1102-1108; 1982a.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-08-13 20:32:38 CDT (-0400)

Verifique el tamaño de los zigosporos de la muestra mas recient con un nuevo micrometro y me dio la siguientes medidas. 125 – 150 × 50 – 70 micras. promedio.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-08-13 20:06:26 CDT (-0400)

Voy a verificar el tamaño de los zigosporos, pienso que se trata de Endogone porque adicional a las caracteristicas microscopicas, este fue encontrado creciendo en materia organica en descomposicion.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-08-13 17:39:33 CDT (-0400)

Los zygosporos son ovaladados

Enlarged photo
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-07-07 13:22:55 CDT (-0400)

10 to maximum. I do not see a peridium. Thus G. etunicatum probable.

Gracias!
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-07-07 13:14:14 CDT (-0400)

Spores 200-300 microns? Probably Glomus. I cannot say which species, though.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-07-06 22:19:57 CDT (-0400)

Estoy poniensdo algunas fotos adicionalws, me parece que no tiene camara central, sino una cavidad basal abierta, las “esporas” son bastante grandes, 200 – 300 micras. No me parecen esporas, sino algo parecido a un esporangio, estan unidas a las hifas principales por un cordon hifal. En la mas reciente observacion micro, en el tejido proximo al peridium, observe un tipo de esporas diferentes. (fotos-micro recientes) tal vez ayude en la identificacion.

About
By: Eduardo A. Esquivel Rios (Eduardo27)
2012-07-06 21:15:33 CDT (-0400)

Estos especimenes fueron encontrados creciendo dentro de materia organica en descomposicion en los peciolos muertos de la palmera elaeis melanococca, a unos 1.50 mts. sobre el nivel del suelo.

Eduardo:
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-07-06 20:00:47 CDT (-0400)

please add more photos of the interior, as close as possible. So far I can only rule out certain classes of hypogeous fungi. But this doesn’t really match any I know either. A voucher collection would be valuable. If the sporocarps are large, try slicing them into 10-30mm slabs for faster dehydration. Would like to see photos of dehydrated slices too.

More info for those interested.
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-07-06 19:58:31 CDT (-0400)

Collection composed of several globose to subglobose specimens. Peridium (exterior) with wide patches of reddish-cream coloration, and what appear to be external veins (venae externae). Venae externae are white with short pubescence.

Gleba mostly reddish-brown, granular, no columella present, no locules present, central chamber is present. No internal veination seen (venae internae). By definition, Tubers have both internal and external veins. Ergo not Tuber. No apparent ascii visible. No peridioles present. No apparent stipe or pseudostipe. No apparent pedicel or direct attachment to soil present. Some roots or mycorrhizal present. Roots/mycorrhizae appear dark brown, fibrous, not tightly appressed to sporocarp.

The spores are not obvious nor exceptionally large (i.e. 300-600 microns wide, or visible with the naked eye). So likely not Endogone or Glomus.

Gleba texture is granular, but with a large central chamber.

Spore size?
By: Daniel B. Wheeler (Tuberale)
2012-07-06 19:22:15 CDT (-0400)

Interesting collection. Found underground? What tree variety was it close to?

Superficially it resembles a Tuber, or true truffle. But the central chamber in the gleba is atypical for Tuber. Also, I don’t see any internal veins in the gleba.

Created: 2012-07-06 16:00:26 CDT (-0400)
Last modified: 2016-12-02 18:59:16 CST (-0500)
Viewed: 449 times, last viewed: 2016-12-03 15:44:40 CST (-0500)
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