Species List: Psychoactive Fungi of the World (201)
When: 1980-01-01
Observations: 142


This species list is an attempt to wade through the mire of anecdotes, suspicions and falsehoods on the psychoactivity of the fungal kingdom by providing a list of those non-deadly-poisonous species known or strongly suspected to contain one or more mycotoxins from one of the following four categories:

1. Isoxazole Derivatives (Muscimol, Ibotenic Acid, and relatives)

2. Psilocybin, Psilocin, and other Indole Derivatives

3. Ergoline Derivatives (LSA, LSD, and relatives)

4. Unknown

For the sake of comprehensiveness, the list below includes names from all across the spectrum of reported psychoactivity, from notoriously to faintly active. In some cases, psychoactivity has been inferred/assumed on the basis of phylogenetic proximity. Comments are encouraged, either here or on the name pages of the taxon in question, so as to make this the most accurate resource as possible on the subject. All names in [brackets] are “on-hold” until or unless substantial information can be gathered on their rumored psychoactivity.

1. Isoxazole Derivatives (Muscimol, Ibotenic Acid, and relatives)

» subgenus Amanita
» section Amanita
» subsection Pantherinae
Amanita albocreata G. F. Atk.
Amanita ameripanthera Tulloss & J. Lindgr. nom. prov.
Amanita frostiana var. pallidipes Peck insuff. known
Amanita multisquamosa Peck
Amanita pantherina (DC. : Fr.) Krombh.
Amanita pantherina var. abietum (E.-J. Gilbert) Veselý
Amanita parvipantherina Zhu L. Yang, M. Weiss & Oberw.
Amanita praecox Lamoureux nom. prov.
Amanita stranella E.-J. Gilbert & Snell insuff. known
Amanita velatipes G.F. Atk.
Amanita sp-HON02 Tulloss & G. M. Muell. cryptonom. temp.
Amanita sp-HON09 Tulloss & G. M. Muell. cryptonom. temp.
Amanita sp-M20 Tulloss et al. cryptonom. temp.
Amanita sp-M22
» subgenus Amanita
» section Amanita
» subsection Amanita
» series Amanita
» stirps Muscaria
Amanita amerimuscaria Tulloss & Geml nom. prov.
Amanita gioiosa S. Curreli
Amanita muscaria (L. : Fr.) Lam.
Amanita muscaria subsp. flavivolvata Singer
Amanita muscaria var. alba Peck
Amanita muscaria var. americana J.E. Lange
Amanita muscaria var. aureola Kalchbr
Amanita muscaria var. formosa Pers.
Amanita muscaria var. formosa sensu Thiers
Amanita muscaria var. guessowii Veselý
Amanita muscaria var. inzengae Neville & Poumarat
Amanita muscaria var. persicina Dav. T. Jenkins
Amanita regalis (Fr.) Michael
Amanita sp-LG1045 Tulloss, Geml, & Grubisha cryptonom. temp.
Amanita sp-LG458 Tulloss, Geml & Grubisha cryptonom. temp.
Amanita sp-LG862 Tulloss, Geml & Grubisha cryptonom. temp.
Amanita sp-WY01

[Amanita subsect. Gemmatae]

[Amanita crenulata Peck]
[Amanita frostiana (Peck) Sacc.]
[Amanita strobiliformis (Paulet ex Vittad.) Bertill.]

Tricholoma muscarium Kawam. ex Hongo

2. Psilocybin, Psilocin, and other Indole Derivatives

Agrocybe farinacea Hongo

Conocybe cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Kühner
Conocybe kuehneriana Singer
Conocybe siligineoides R. Heim
Conocybe smithii Watling

Copelandia affinis E. Horak
Copelandia cambodginiensis (Ola’h & R. Heim) Singer & R.A. Weeks
Copelandia chlorocystis Singer & R.A. Weeks
Copelandia lentisporus (Ew. Gerhardt) Guzmán
Copelandia tirunelveliensis Natarajan & Raman
Copelandia tropicalis (Ola’h) Singer & R.A. Weeks

Galerina steglichii Besl

Gymnopilus aeruginosus (Peck) Singer
Gymnopilus braendlei (Peck) Hesler
Gymnopilus intermedius (Singer) Singer
Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) P.D. Orton
Gymnopilus liquiritiae (Persoon: Fries) Karsten
Gymnopilus luteofolius (Peck) Singer
Gymnopilus luteoviridis Theirs
Gymnopilus luteus (Peck) Hesler
Gymnopilus purpuratus (Cooke & Massee) Singer
Gymnopilus sapineus (Fr.) Murrill
Gymnopilus subpurpuratus Guzm.-Dáv. & Guzmán
Gymnopilus validipes (Peck) Hesler
Gymnopilus viridans (Murrill) Hesler

Inocybe aeruginascens Babos
Inocybe coelestium Kuyper
Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina Quél.
Inocybe corydalina var. erinaceomorpha (Stangl & J. Veselský) Kuyper
Inocybe haemacta (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc.
Inocybe tricolor Kühner

[Mycena cyanorrhiza Quél.]

Panaeolus africanus Ola’h
Panaeolus annulatus Natarajan & Raman
Panaeolus bisporus (Malençon & Bertault) Ew. Gerhardt
Panaeolus cyanescens (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.
Panaeolus microsporus Ola’h & Cailleux
Panaeolus moellerianus Singer
Panaeolus olivaceus F.H. Møller

Pluteus cyanopus Quel.
Pluteus glaucus Singer
Pluteus nigroviridis Babos
Pluteus salicinus (Pers.) Psilocybe Kumm.
Pluteus villosus (Bull.) Quél.

» sect. Aztecorum
Psilocybe aztecorum R. Heim
Psilocybe aztecorum var. bonetii (Guzmán) Guzmán
Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe natarajanii Guzmán
Psilocybe pseudoaztecorum Natarajan & Raman
Psilocybe quebecensis Ola’h & R. Heim
» sect. Bisporae
Psilocybe bispora Guzmán, Franco-Mol. & Ram.-Guill.
» sect. Brunneocystidiatae
Psilocybe banderillensis Guzmán
Psilocybe brunneocystidiata Guzmán & E. Horak
Psilocybe guilartensis Guzmán, F. Tapia & Nieves-Riv.
Psilocybe heimii Guzmán
Psilocybe inconspicua Guzmán & E. Horak
Psilocybe paulensis (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán
Psilocybe pleurocystidiosa Guzmán
Psilocybe rzedowski Psilocybe rzedowski
Psilocybe singeri Guzmán
Psilocybe subbrunneocystidiata P.S. Silva & Guzmán
Psilocybe uxpanapensis Guzmán
Psilocybe verae-crucis Guzmán & Pérez Ortiz
Psilocybe weldenii Guzmán
» sect. Cordisporae
Psilocybe bipleurocystidiata E. Horak & Guzmán
Psilocybe brasiliensis Guzmán
Psilocybe caerulescens Murrill
Psilocybe caerulescens var. ombrophila (R. Heim) Guzmán
Psilocybe caribaea Guzmán, T.J. Baroni & Tapia
Psilocybe chiapanensis Guzmán
Psilocybe columbiana Guzmán
Psilocybe cordispora R. Heim
Psilocybe dumontii Singer ex Guzmán
Psilocybe fagicola R. Heim & Cailleux
Psilocybe fagicola var. mesocystidiata Guzmán
Psilocybe farinosa (Murrill) A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe furtadoana Guzmán
Psilocybe goniospora (Berk. & Broome) Singer
Psilocybe guatapensis Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez
Psilocybe heliconiae Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez
Psilocybe herrerae Guzmán
Psilocybe hoogshagenii R. Heim
Psilocybe hoogshagenii var. convexa Guzmán
Psilocybe laurae Guzmán
Psilocybe mammillata (Murrill) A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe multicellularis E. Horak & Guzmán
Psilocybe neoxalapensis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Halling 2009
Psilocybe ochreata (Sacc.) E. Horak
Psilocybe papuana Guzmán & E. Horak
Psilocybe plutonia (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc.
Psilocybe schultesii Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
Psilocybe subannulata E. Horak & Guzmán
Psilocybe subovoideocystidiata Guzmán & E. Horak
Psilocybe subtropicalis Guzmán
Psilocybe subyungensis Guzmán
Psilocybe teofiloi Guzmán & Ram.-Guill.
Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán
Psilocybe xalapensis Guzmán & A. López
Psilocybe wassoniorum Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
Psilocybe weilii Guzmán, Stamets & F. Tapia
Psilocybe wrightii Guzmán
Psilocybe yungensis Singer & A.H. Sm.
» sect. Cubensae
Psilocybe cubensis (Earle) Singer
Psilocybe subcubensis Guzmán
» sect. Mexicanae
Psilocybe acutipilea (Speg.) Guzmán
Psilocybe albofimbriata (Rick) Singer
Psilocybe antioquensis Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez
Psilocybe armandii Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
Psilocybe atlantis Guzmán, Hanlin & C. White
Psilocybe gallaeciae Guzmán & M.L. Castro
Psilocybe galindoi Guzmán
Psilocybe mexicana R. Heim
Psilocybe makarorae P.R. Johnst. & P.K. Buchanan
Psilocybe pericystis Singer
Psilocybe samuiensis Guzmán, Bandala & J.W. Allen
Psilocybe subacutipilea Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez
Psilocybe tampanensis Guzmán & S.H. Pollock
» sect. Neocaledonicae
Psilocybe aequatoriae Singer
Psilocybe aureicystidiata E. Horak & Desjardin
Psilocybe goniospora (Berk. & Broome) Singer
Psilocybe magnispora E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin
Psilocybe naematoliformis Guzmán
Psilocybe neocaledonica Guzmán & E. Horak
Psilocybe neorhombispora Guzmán
Psilocybe overeemii E. Horak & Desjardin
Psilocybe thailandensis E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin
Psilocybe umbrina E. Horak, Guzmán & Desjardin
» sect. Semilanceatae (= sect. Cyanescens)
Psilocybe australiana Guzmán & Watling
Psilocybe callosa (Fr.) Gillet
Psilocybe caerulipes (Peck) Sacc.
Psilocybe carbonaria Singer
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakef.
Psilocybe cyanofibrillosa Guzmán & Stamets
Psilocybe eucalypta Guzmán & Watling
Psilocybe fimetaria (P.D. Orton) Watling
Psilocybe hispanica Guzmán
Psilocybe indica Sathe & J.T. Daniel
Psilocybe liniformans Guzmán & Bas
Psilocybe liniformans var. americana Guzmán & Stamets
Psilocybe mairei Singer
Psilocybe pelliculosa (A.H. Sm.) Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe semi-inconspicua Guzmán & Trappe
Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Psilocybe serbica M.M. Moser & E. Horak
_Psilocybe serbica var. bohemica (Šebek ex Šebek) Borov., Oborník & Noordel.
_Psilocybe serbica var. arcana (Borov. & Hlaváček) Borov., Oborník & Noordel.
_Psilocybe serbica var. moravica (Borov.) Borov., Oborník & Noordel.
_Psilocybe serbica f. sternberkiana (Borov.) Borov., Oborník & Noordel.
Psilocybe sierrae Singer
Psilocybe silvatica (Peck) Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe strictipes Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe tasmaniana Guzmán & Watling
Psilocybe venenata (S. Imai) Imazeki & Hongo
» sect. Stuntzae
Psilocybe aerugineomaculans (Höhn.) Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe aquamarina (Pegler) Guzmán
Psilocybe caeruleoannulata Singer ex Guzmán
Psilocybe jacobsii Guzmán
Psilocybe meridionalis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Guzm.-Dáv.
Psilocybe mescaleroensis Guzmán, Walstad, Gándara & Ram.-Guill.
Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Guzmán & Gaines
Psilocybe rostrata (Petch) Pegler
Psilocybe subaeruginascens Höhn.
Psilocybe septentrionalis (Guzmán) Guzmán
Psilocybe stuntzii Guzmán & J. Ott
Psilocybe uruguayensis Singer ex Guzmán
» sect. Subaeruginosae
Psilocybe paupera Singer
Psilocybe subaeruginosa Cleland
» sect. Zapotecorum
Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata Guzmán
Psilocybe argentipes K. Yokoy.
Psilocybe aucklandiae Guzmán, C.C. King & Bandala
Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán
Psilocybe collybioides Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe graveolens Peck
Psilocybe kumaenorum R. Heim
Psilocybe meridensis Guzmán
Psilocybe microcystidia Guzmán & Bononi
Psilocybe moseri Guzmán
Psilocybe muliercula Singer & A.H. Sm.
Psilocybe pintoni Guzmán
Psilocybe ramulosa (Guzmán & Bononi) Guzmán
Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán
Psilocybe subcaerulipes Hongo
Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum Guzmán, T.J. Baroni & Lodge
Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & T.J. Baroni
Psilocybe zapotecorum R. Heim
» (uncertain sectional placement)
Psilocybe azurescens Stamets & Gartz
Psilocybe cabiensis Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill.
Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, Escalona & Ram.-Guill.
Psilocybe coprinifacies sensu auct. (Rolland) Pouzar
Psilocybe “cyanofriscosa”
Psilocybe gallaeciae Guzmán & M.L. Castro
Psilocybe guzmanii Natarajan & Raman
Psilocybe isabelae Guzmán
Psilocybe jaliscana Guzmán
Psilocybe keralensis K.A. Thomas, Manim. & Guzmán
Psilocybe lazoi Singer
Psilocybe meridionalis Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Guzm.-Dáv.
Psilocybe mesophylla Guzmán, J.Q. Jacobs & Escalona
[Psilocybe muscorum (P.D. Orton) M.M. Moser]
Psilocybe natalensis Gartz, Reid, Smith & Eicker
Psilocybe oaxacana Guzmán, Escalona & J.Q. Jacobs
[Psilocybe oktedii Hyndman et Thomas.]
Psilocybe pileocystidiata Guzmán & Ram.-Guill.
Psilocybe pintonii Guzmán
Psilocybe portoricensis Guzmán, Nieves-Riv. & F. Tapia
Psilocybe puberula Bas & Noordel.
Psilocybe rickii Guzmán & Cortez
Psilocybe sardoa Guzmán & Contu
Psilocybe singularis Guzmán, Escalona & J.Q. Jacobs
Psilocybe subhoogshagenii Guzmán, M. Torres & Ram.-Guill.
Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán
Psilocybe tuxtlensis Guzmán
Psilocybe weraroa Borov., Oborník & Noordel
Psilocybe wayanadensis K.A. Thomas, Manim. & Guzmán

except where specifically noted as active (Allen 2010) the non-staining sections Atrobrunneae, Blattariopsidae, Coprophila, Merdariae, Pratensis, Psilocybe, Singerianae and Squamosa have been excluded on the basis of suspected placement in the non-active genera Deconica or Weraroa.

Naematoloma gigaspora (Natarajan & Raman) Guzmán
Naematoloma guzmanii (Natarajan & Raman) Guzmán
Naematoloma popperianum Singer

3. Ergoline Derivatives (LSA, LSD, and relatives)

Claviceps africana
Claviceps purpurea
Claviceps spp. (much more information is needed on this group)

4. Unknown

Boletus sp. (the jian shou qing of China)
[Boletus flammeus R. Heim]
[Boletus kumaeus R. Heim]
[Boletus manicus R. Heim]
[Boletus nigerrimus R. Heim]
[Boletus nigroviolaceus R. Heim]
[Boletus reayi R. Heim]
[Heimioporus anguiformis (R.Heim) E.Horak]
[Heimioporus retisporus (Pat. & C.F. Baker) E. Horak]
[Russula agglutinata R. Heim]
[Russula kirinea R. Heim]
[Russula maenadum R. Heim]
[Russula nondorbingi R. Heim]
[Russula pseduomaenadum R. Heim]
[Russula wahgiensis Singer]
[Lycoperdon candidum Pers.]
[Lycoperdon oblongiosporum Ber. & M.A. Curtis]
[Vascellum pratense (Pers. emend. Quél.) Kreisel]
[Vascellum intermedium A.H. Sm.]
[Vascellum qudenii (Bottomley) P. Ponce de León]
[Dictyophora indusiata (Vent. ex Pers.) Desv.]


Allen, John W. “A Chemical Referral and Reference Guide to the Known Species of Psilocin andor Psilocybin-containing Mushrooms and their Published Analysis and Bluing Reactions; An Updated and Revised List.” Web. Revised December 2010.

Borovička, Jan, Machiel E. Noordeloos, Milan Gryndler & Miroslav Oborník. “Molecular phylogeny of Psilocybe cyanescens complex in Europe, with reference to the position of the secotioid Weraroa novae-zelandiae.” Mycological Progress 10.2 (2011): 149-155.

Guzmán, G.; Horak, E.; Halling, R.; Ramírez-Guillén, F. “Further studies on Psilocybe from the Caribbean, Central America and South America, with descriptions of new species and remarks to new records.” Sydowia 61.2 (2009): 215-242.

Guzmán, Gaston, John W. Allen & Jochen Gartz. “A Worldwide Geographical Distribution of the Neurotropic Fungi, an Analysis and Discussion.” Ann Mus. civ. Rovereto Sez.: Arch., St., Sc. nat. 14 (1998): 189-280.

Guzmán, G., F. Ramírez-Guillén & M. Torres. 2004. “The hallucinogenic species of Psilocybe in Colombia, their Indian use, new records, and new species.” Intern. J. Medicinal Mushr. 6 (2004): 83-93.

Guzmán et al. “New species of Psilocybe in the Caribbean, with an emendation of P. guilartensis.”
Mycologia 95(6), 2003, pp. 1171–1180.

Guzmán, G. “Supplement to the monograph of the genus Psilocybe.” In: Petrini, O. & E. Horak, Taxonomic monographs of Agaricales. Bibliotheca Mycologica 159 (1995): 91-141.

Guzmán, Gaston. The Genus Psilocybe: A Systematic Revision of the Known Species Including the History, Distribution and Chemistry of the Hallucinogenic Species. Vaduz: J Cramer, 1983. Print.

Horak, E., G. Guzmán & D.E. Desjardin. “Four new species of Psilocybe from Malaysia and Thailand, with a key to the species of sect. Neocaledonicae and discussion on the distribution of the tropical and temperate species.” Sydowia 61.1 (2009): 25–37.

Treu, Roland & Win Adamson. “Ethnomycological Notes from Papua, New Guinea” McIlvainea 16.2 (2006): 3-10.

www.Amanitaceae.org. 2012. Rodham E. Tulloss.

NAMA: Mushroom Poisoning Syndromes. 2012. The North American Mycological Association. http://www.namyco.org/toxicology/poison_syndromes.html.


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Missing Panaeolus
By: Hashfinger
2014-06-27 17:00:32 PDT (-0700)

What about Panaeolus subbalteatus?

Created: 2011-08-06 14:49:40 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2014-11-17 16:58:17 PST (-0800)
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