When: 2010-08-20

Collection location: Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA [Click for map]

Who: Alan Rockefeller (Alan Rockefeller)

No specimen available

Designnner collection, from http://www.shroomery.org/forums/showflat.php/Number/13083026

[admin – Sat Sep 11 19:03:46 +0000 2010]: Changed location name from ‘Twin Cities, Minnesota’ to ‘Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA’


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SE Bessette & Roody Book
By: walt sturgeon (Mycowalt)
2010-08-25 19:35:25 CDT (-0500)

Illustrates both color forms. One matches this one but is not as shaggy. Gill color on the two photos varied from brown to almost Stropharia-like.

does the Bessette book show a photo…
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2010-08-25 19:25:19 CDT (-0500)

that matches this Pholiota?

And no dessicata either, sigh.

I did send the link to a Pholiota loving friend…we’ll see what she sez. My gut tells me that its not P. polychroa. But hey, prove me wrong! The goal is to find the truth, not to prove oneself right.

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2010-08-25 19:05:57 CDT (-0500)

I would argue that the photo you just linked to actually does look a lot like this one in most regards except color. One character difference does not a deal break… especially if we consider that the species is highly variable, and the authors of the original may not have been familiar with all it’s forms.

As for the shaggy cap edge, I admit that it’s pretty robust, but as I know you’ve seen with the Amanitas, environmental conditions during development can affect the veil remnant distribution pretty dramatically.

gorgeous mushroom…
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2010-08-25 18:20:25 CDT (-0500)

but it doesn’t really fit the description for polychroa, nor does the photo match up well with the one in Hessler and Smith.

I am especially bothered by that incredibly shaggy cap edge…in a mushroom (polychroa) that is described as “glabrous” with age. The gill color shown doesn’t really match up with H and S either.
Tempting to go with the only vaguely purple Pholiota around. Plus, isn’t polychroa an eastern/southeastern mushroom? I am not seing the greenish or yellow cap tones mentioned. And whoah, I’ve just remembered that I’ve actually collected this mushroom, and it doesn’t look anything like this one. But don’t take my word for it (my photo files are not in great accessing shape) go here:


By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2010-08-25 17:20:43 CDT (-0500)

Still nothing about purpley red like this one.
Sorry Curecat, Maybe it was in a Bessette book.

Smith & Hesler description…
By: Noah Siegel (Noah)
2010-08-25 15:59:06 CDT (-0500)

Pholiota polychroa (Berk.) Smith & Brodie Bot. Gaz. 96: 533 -546. 1935. Agaricus polychrous Berkeley, Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 313. 1847. Agaricus ornellus Peck, N.Y. State Mus. Ann. Rept. 34: 42. 1883. Flammula polychroa (Berk.) Saccardo, Syll. Fung. 5: 824. 1887. Pholiota appendiculata Peck, N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 94: 33. 1905. Pholiota o-rnlla (Pk.) Peck, N.Y. State Mus. Bull. 122: 151. 1908. Gymnopilus polychrous (Berk.) Murrill, North Amer. Fl. 10: 204. 1917. Illustrations: Text figs. 431-433; pls. 86a, 87.

Pileus 1.5-10 cm broad, obtuse to convex when young, with the margin incurved, expanding to broadly convex or obtusely umbonate, surface glutinous to viscid, cuticle separable, glabrous, but at first decorated witlh the remnants of the veil as creamy to avellaneous superficial squamules, margin often appendiculate with veil remnants, of many colors: pale grass-green, blue-green (“turquoise green”), dark olive, or dark purplish-drab to purple-gray, gradually developing yellow hues, often mottled, often becoming dull orange to yellow on the disc, the margin olivaceous (color extremely variable).
Context soft, moist, thick on the disc, white above, greenish below, thin on the margin; odor and taste not distinctive.
Lamellae varying in attachment from adnexed to decurrent, often seceding, close to crowded, moderately broad, at first lilaceous, or pale cream color to pallid young, soon gray-fuscous or avellaneous to wood brown, finally a dark purplish brown with an olive tone, edges whitefimbriate. Stipe 2-6 (8) cm long, 3-5 (8) mm thick, often narrowed downward, fibrous and solid, finally hollow at times, with fairly copious veil remnants distributed over the lower part as squamules or patches and these terminating in a fibrillose to submembranous, greenish to dingy, evanescent annulus, glabrescent below in age, light blue-green or pallid to yellowish over the apical portion, becoming reddish brown below, often attached to the substratum by a mat of tawny hairs.

Spore deposit brown with a slight purplish tinge in moist state, after escape of moisture near cinnamon brown. Spores 6-7.5 × 3.5-4.5 /L, smooth, apical pore minute; shape oblong to elliptic in face view, rarely ovate, in profile mostly bean-shaped; color dark dull cinnamon in KOH, in Melzer’s reagent paler; wall about 0.25 /u thick. Basidia 18-25 × 4.5-6,u, 2- and 4-spored, subclavate, hyaline to yellowish in Melzer’s reagent or in KOH. Pleurocystidia 40-60 (70) x 9 -15 Au, fusoid-ventricose, apex obtuse, wall thin and smooth; content homogeneous or containing some rodlike particles (in Melzer’s), yellowish to amber-brown in KOH fading to hyaline and then granular-colloidal in consistency; often with a slender pedicel. Cheilocystidia 28-42 × 7 -10 (23) jL, broadly fusoid with obtuse apex to fusoid ventricose and similar to pleurocystidia. Caulocystidia 22-75 (150) X 5-9 (30),L, large ones hyaline thin-walled and clavate to fusoid; smaller ones versiform: utriform, fusoid-ventricose, clavate etc., wall in some slightly thickened and ochraceous. Gill trama of somewhat interwoven floccose hyphae, the hyphal cells 6-20,/ broad; walls thin hyaline and smooth; subhymenium a broad layer (relatively) of narrow hyaline interwoven gelatinous hyphae. Pileus cutis a thick gelatinous pellicle with narrow (2-3 /A) hyaline hyphae rather widely dispersed through it, the hyphal walls breaking down; hypodermial zone of smooth floccose hyphae 5-15,/ diam., the walls thin to slightly thickened and hyaline to ochraceous or brownish.
Context hyphae hyaline smooth, the wall thin but seen as two walls cemented together, cells greatly enlarged. Clamp connections present. All hyphae inamyloid.

HABIT, HABITAT, AND DISTRIBUTION: On hardwood logs, stumps, and fallen limbs, more rarely on conifers, occasionally sawdust, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, Tennessee, Texas, Michigan, and Oregon, July-November; reported from New England to Alabama, and west to Wisconsin (Murrill 1917), and from Canada (Giissow &c Odell 1927).

OBSERVATIONS: This species is well marked for field identification by its varied colors, especially the olive and green hues in the earlier stages. These green tints often show to some degree in mature caps. The sporecolor is essentially brown, but in a good print there is a slight purplish tinge. Despite this spore-color, agaricologists consider it close to Pholiota (or Flanmula, in older publications) than to any of the purple-spored genera, but this only goes to help point out the intergradations in spore color between Psilocybe, Stropharia and Pholiota.
MATERIAL EXAMINED: INDIANA: Kanouse 10-11-47; FLORIDA: Hesler 21436; MICHIGAN: Harding 487; Kauffman & Pennington 8 -27-06, Kauffman 9-107a, 9-12-07b, 9-12-07c, 9-23-12, 9-25-29; Smith 10-10 -31, 32-598, 11008, 11083, 14952, 15255, 21155, 21909, 32054, 43545, 43711, 51216, 68743, 68782; MARYLAND: Kelly 435, 1447; Kauffman 9-1-19; NEW YORK: Kauffman 7-17-03; Peck (types of Agaricus (Flammula) ornellus and Pholiota appendiculata); NORTH CAROLINA (GSMNP): Hesler 17654; OREGON: Smith 68741; PENNSYLVANIA: Kauffman 9-24-09; TENNESSEE: Hesler 3682, 4261, 5396, 5397, 8076, 8019, 9545, 13797, 19522, 19840, 22180; TEXAS: Thiers 1905; VIRGINIA: Kelly 348, 349, 1696; CANADA (Ontario): Smith 4589.

By: Erin Page Blanchard (CureCat)
2010-08-25 15:51:32 CDT (-0500)

Here is a description of it from Mushrooms of the Southeastern United States:

By: Erin Page Blanchard (CureCat)
2010-08-25 15:44:32 CDT (-0500)

P. polychroa is not a species listed in North American Mushrooms.

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2010-08-25 15:36:54 CDT (-0500)

Oh yeah! Now that you mention it (thanks for the link to that resource), I remember that in O.K. Miller’s recent book he has photos of the two color variants of P. polychroa, including a purpley-red one! I don’t have that book with me in San Diego, but if someone else has it at hand (Curecat), it would be worth checking up on what he has to say about it.

By: Erin Page Blanchard (CureCat)
2010-08-25 15:18:04 CDT (-0500)

Almost certainly a Pholiota. I agree Christian, it does resemble that photo, however it may be a misidentification.

This photo looks sort of like the left photo of P. polychroa from this page:
Also an Eastern species, and the gill attachment seems similar.

Robert Scarth
By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2010-08-25 13:34:00 CDT (-0500)

seems to have found a similar mushrooms and called it Pholiota albocrenulata, see here:
…but I have serious doubts that the name will hold much water, given the other photos I’ve seen of that species.

By: Christian (Christian Schwarz)
2010-08-25 13:30:07 CDT (-0500)

Perhaps a very exotic Pholiota. A collection would be great.