Observation 60038: Galerina clavata (Velen.) Kuhner

When: 2010-11-30

Collection location: Canyon, Contra Costa Co., California, USA [Click for map]

Who: Richard Sullivan (enchplant)

No specimen available

Growing on a mossy fallen branch in deep shade below redwoods.


Spores at 1000x
cheilocystidia at 1000x
caulocystidia at 1000x
cheilocystidia at 400 x
spores at 1000x

Proposed Names

-45% (2)
Recognized by sight: Brown, tall and thin. Stipe <1mm diameter, 5-6cm tall. Cap <1cm diameter
Based on microscopic features: spores 5-6µm x 9-11µm elliptic. Caulocystidia present on stipe, capitulate to tibiiform. Capitulate cheilocystidia observed
91% (2)
Eye3 Eyes3
Recognized by sight

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Eye3 = Observer’s choice
Eyes3 = Current consensus


Add Comment
Well, yes and no…
By: Douglas Smith (douglas)
2010-12-01 02:52:20 CST (-0500)

It somewhat depends on your interpretation of Galerina, Conocybe and Pholiotina. But usually now, Conocybe is really defined by the cheilocystidia, and those species will all have germ pores. Pholiotina is somewhat defined by stature (to separate from Agrocybe), but mostly by cap surface, but not all of those have a germ pore. See my obs. of Pholiotina aporos. In the past there was a section of Galerina with germ pores, called Porospora in Smith and Singer, but I think now those should be considered Phaeogalera. But those are seen so rarely, or rarely studied by people, except for one species in northern Europe, that mostly they haven’t been moved over in new publications yet (if ever by now?).

So, it isn’t a clear division. In the past body form was more important, and Galera was defined on brown spored Mycena-like guys. Then that was split into Galerina with a cutis cap surface, and Conocybe with a cellular cap surface. And Conocybe has Pholiotina separated out where the cystidia are different. So, really to be sure of an id of Conocybe vs. Galerina you need the cap surface.

Although it is true, in 90% of species probably, the spore structure at 1000x and cystidia shape will probably get you to an id, and the cap surface isn’t important at that point… So, if you just want to make an id, then that will get you most of the way there. But if you want to get down all details, to prove things, you need the can surface also…

Hi Douglas
By: Richard Sullivan (enchplant)
2010-12-01 02:33:42 CST (-0500)

Hey I’ve been going over some of your other observations of Galerinas, Conocybes and Pholiotinas. Yep I couldnt see a germ pore on the spores. And no they are not smooth. I know you have spent a lot of time studying these little guys and I knew the pileipellis was important but couldn’t seem to get a good radial section of that.

So tell me do germ pores visible point to Conocybe and Pholiotina?

Check the spores
By: Douglas Smith (douglas)
2010-12-01 02:19:52 CST (-0500)

Check the spores, I bet they are not completely smooth and don’t have a germ pore.

Created: 2010-12-01 02:11:45 CST (-0500)
Last modified: 2010-12-01 02:38:50 CST (-0500)
Viewed: 183 times, last viewed: 2018-09-27 14:58:56 CDT (-0400)
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