Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely used in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype. The genetic code stored in DNA is “interpreted” by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism’s phenotype. Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism’s shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism.
Created: 2019-06-24 14:26:21 -03 (-0300)
Last modified: 2019-06-24 14:26:21 -03 (-0300)