The Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Cristalino (Parque Estadual Cristalino/Cristalino State Park) is located in the Southern Amazon at the northern border of the State of Mato Grosso near the city of Alta Floresta and the Municipality of Novo Mundo in an area of 184 900 hectares. The RPPN has an exceptional diversity due to different vegetation types and is very well preserved. The Rio Cristalino Forest Reserve and the surroundings of Alta Floresta are well known for birding, more than 600 species of birds can be encountered. Fungi are abundant during the rainy season.
Cristalino Jungle Lodge itself has a Private Reserve with more than 29,652 acres (46 square miles). GPS: 9°35’50.71"S 55°55’52.33"W. The Cristalino Jungle Lodge is located at the Rio Cristalino, a tributary to the Teles Pires River. The Rio Teles Pires River is joining the Rio Juruena to form the Rio Tapajós, which is a major tributary of the Amazon. The area is a biodiversity hotspot, with 600 bird species, 55 mammal species, more than 600 butterfly species as well as countless species of insects to name just a fraction of the biodiversity.
Geology: The parent rock for the soil is mostly granite which is partially interrupted with basalt transitions. Granite can be found in many parts of the aera, in some parts it forms hills up to 120m. In general, all soils have a very high proportion of clay. Three main soil types can be distinguished. The clay strongly reductive, Gleysol can be found near the river, where it has evolved through constant water influence. The largest area is covered by Oxisol -this deeply weathered soil is rich in aluminum and iron oxides, very clayey, but very poor in nutrients. On the Granite plateaus flat soils dominate, being very humus-rich and having a high proportion of the starting substrate.
Vegetation: The vegetation is composed of Tetragastris altissima (22%), Celtis schippii (17%) and Pseudolmedia sp. (6%), with an average canopy height of 30 m but with some emergent trees reaching up to 45 m in height. See also summary of FLORA CRISTALINO PROGRAM (Fundação Ecológica Cristalino / Royal Botanic Gardens/ Kew (UK) and Mato Grosso State University (UNEMAT)) http://cristalinolodge.net/...
Climate: Annual precipitation +/- 2800mm. Annual average temperature is 25.4 ° C. According to Köppen and Geiger the climate type is classified as “Aw climate”. In summer there is significantly more precipitation than in winter. From May to September there is a dry season, the driest month, with 8mm rainfall is in July. The wettest month is February with 400 mm rainfall.