Name: Pholiotina cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Singer
Most Confident Observations:
Copyright © 2013 Caleb Brown (Caleb Brown)
Copyright © 2013 Caleb Brown (Caleb Brown)
Copyright © 2017 Roy
Version: 5
Previous Version 

First person to use this name on MO: Erlon Bailey
Editors: I. G. Safonov, Caleb Brown, Joseph D. Cohen


Rank: Species

Status: Accepted

Name: Pholiotina cyanopus

Author: (G.F. Atk.) Singer

Citation: Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, ser. 2, Sporov. Rast. 6: 425 (1950)

Deprecated Synonyms: Conocybe cyanopus (G.F. Atk.) Kühner, Conocybe cyanopoda (G.F. Atk.) Kühner


Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Bolbitiaceae

Genus: Pholiotina

Notes on Taxonomy: [Edit]

7-27 mm broad. Semiglobate, conic to convex, expanding to broadly convex with age. bicoloured with pale margin and darker centre. Cinnamon brown to burnt orange. Surface moist when wet, soon dry; smooth overall to slightly wrinkled towards the disc with age. Hygrophanous pileus which lightens to a buff tan color when exposed to dry conditions.
Margin translucent-striate when moist and often forming small appendages at first, with minute fibrillose remnants of the partial veil. Taste and odor indistinct.

Attachment adnate and close, moderately broad, not crowded. Colored cinnamon brown with whitish edges near the margin, darkening in age to rust brown.

20-40 mm long by 1-1.4 mm thick. Cylindrical, equal, or bending at the base, fragile, easily breaking. Whitish at first, becoming grayish or brownish at the apex, and often adorned with whitish mycelium at the base that bruise blue to blue-green. Partial veil thinly cortinate, sometimes leaving trace remnants along the cap margin, soon disappearing. No annulus formed.

Microscopic features:
Spores rusty brown in deposit, 6.5-9.5 × 4.5-6 µm, average 8.1 × 5.2 µm, ellipsiod in face view, flattened asymmetrically in side view, not lentiform. Smooth, with slightly thickened wall and distinct germ pore, nonamyloid. pale brown in water, orange yellow in KOH. Basidia 4-spored, 17-21 × 8.0-9.5 µm, clavate. Cheilocystidia 20-50 × 8.5-11 µm, lageniform, occationally with a swollen body and subcapitate apex. Stipitipellis with fasciculate caulocystidia similar to the cheilocystidia but larger, 60x 15 µm. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis hymeniform, composed of sphaeropedunculate elements mixed with some cylindrical to sublageniform pileocystidia, 35 × 6 µm. Lamellae trama compactly interwoven, pileus trama loosely interwoven; hyphae cylindrical to inflated, with walls thin to irregularly thickened and encrusted, hyline to yellowish brown. Clamp connections present

Habit, Habitat and Distribution:
Originally described from North America, P. cyanopus is widely distributed in temperate regions of North America as well as central and northern Europe. Found growing singularly or in troops in well manicured lawns and grassy areas from August through November.

Bruising at the bulbous base, sometimes immediately after it has been plucked from the substrate. A difficult species to identify for beginners as it may be confused with other small mushrooms quite easily.
Although small in size, this species is potently active. Beug and Bigwood (1982b) found 0.93 psilocybin but no psilocin. Christiansen et al. (1984) reported ranges of 0.33-0.55 psilocybin and 0.0a04-0.007 psilocin. Gartz (1992) found 0.78-1.01 psilocybin, no psilocin, and 0.12-0.20 baeocystin. This species is probably widely distributed across the temperate regions of the world but goes unnoticed because of its minute stature.
According to Watling (Benedict et al. 1967) P. cyanopus can be distinguished from P. smithii by the larger, sturdier fruit bodies which have an absence of a cinnamon flush to the lamellae. Microscopically P. cyanopus has wider spores, different shaped cheilocystidia and a greater amount of pileocystidia. P. cyanopus also grows in grasses unlike the lignicolous substrates of P. smithii.

This species also belongs in pholiotina due to the hymenoderm pileipellis, rounded to tapered cystidia, and the presence of a mediostratum in the lamellular trama.

Descriptions: [Create]
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Add Comment
Re: Spores
By: Joseph D. Cohen (Joe Cohen)
2020-05-29 11:18:59 CDT (-0400)

By: Rayseld (Rayseld)2020-05-29 07:24:21 PDT (-0700)
Where can I find Inocybe aeruginascens and/or Pholiotina cyanopus spores?

On the gills. :-)

Are you asking for:
- spores?
- photos of spores?
- descriptions of spores?

By: Rayseld (Rayseld)
2020-05-29 10:24:21 CDT (-0400)

Where can I find Inocybe aeruginascens and/or Pholiotina cyanopus spores?

Belongs in Pholiotina.
By: Caleb Brown (Caleb Brown)
2013-07-07 21:45:09 CDT (-0400)

This species also belongs in pholiotina due to the hymenoderm pileipellis, rounded to tapered cystidia, and the presence of a mediostratum.

Number of users interested in this name: 0

Created: 2009-10-12 21:34:32 CDT (-0400) by Erlon Bailey (Herbert Baker)
Last modified: 2020-05-29 11:19:00 CDT (-0400) by I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
Viewed: 3944 times, last viewed: 2020-08-13 07:43:54 CDT (-0400)
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