Name: Amauroderma schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk.) Torrend
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First person to use this name on MO: Danny Newman
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Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Polyporales

Genus: Amauroderma

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Notes on Taxonomy: [Edit]

Remarks : combination also proposed by Lloyd ex Wakefield 1934, Kew Bull. 1934: 243

Collected by : Schomburgk
Country (state) :

Location details : Guyana
Status : Type

This is the type species for Amauroderma.

Brief Description:

Literature :
Ryvarden, L. 2004. Neotropical Polypores. Part 1. Introduction, Hymenochaetaceae and Ganodermataceae. Synopsis Fungorum. 19:1-227

Page number : 63
Remarks (internal) : The reddish brown pileus, the brown context, the small pores and the globose basidiospores characterize this species. A. sprucei is separated only by its white to pale cream context.

Description type : Non-original description
Description : Amauroderma schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk.) Torrend,
Broteria Bot. 18:140, 1920. – Polyporus schomburgkii Mont. & Berk., Lond. J. Bot. 3:331, 1844. – Polyporus brunneo-pictus Berk., London J. Bot. 8:176, 1856. – Polyporus cassiaecolor Berk., Ibid. 8:181, 1856. – Polyporus ocellatus Berk., Ibid. p.172, 1856. – Polyuporus semiclausus Berk., ibid. p. 193, 1856. – Polyporus xylodes Berk., ibid. p. 171, 1856. – Polyporus glaziovi Berk., Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturforh. Copenhagen 31/32: 31, 1880. – Fomes regulicor Cooke, Grevillea 15:123, 1886. – Polyporus papillatus Lloyd, Lloyd Mycol. Writ. 4:567, 1916.

Basidiocarps annual, centrally to laterally stipitate; pileus single, convex to applanate, spatulate or flabelliform to infundibuliform, slightly undulate, 3-10 cm in diam, 6-10 mm thick, woody, glabrous, dull, dark reddish brown, often with concentric zones, in section with a thin darker cuticle; margin sharp and deflexed when dry, pore surface whitish gray when fresh and actively growing, becoming dark brown with age and drying, pores angular with entire dissepiments, 5-7 per mm; tubes concolorous, often darker than the context, up to 5 mm deep, context golden to dark brown, darker when old and dry, up to 4 mm thick.
Stipe, 4-9 cm long, 5-8 mm thick, tubular, dull, concolorous with the pileus.

Hyphal system dimitic, generative hyphae with clamps, hyaline, thin-walled, 2-4 ?m wide, skeletal hyphae thick-walled, hyaline, arboriform , those of the dissepiment with apical protuberances, 2-6 ?m wide, the cortex on the upper surface consists of agglutinated hyphae without any distinct
Basidia not seen.

Basidiospores globose, thick-walled with a distinct endosporic projections, yellow, non-dextrinoid,7-10 ?m in diam.

Substrata. Known from dead deciduous wood.

Distribution. Known from southern Brazil to Cuba, Puerto Rico and Jamaica and seemingly the most common Amauroderma seen in the neotropics and locally rather abundant.

Literature :
Furtado, J.S. 1981. Taxonomy of Amauroderma (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. 34:1-109

Page number : 77
Description type : Non-original description
Description : Amauroderma schomburgkii (Montagne & Berkeley) Torrend, Brotéria Bot. 18: 140. 1920. Figs. 35, 36.
Type. Schomburgk (NY, merotype), Guyana.

Macroscopic characteristics. Pileus (Fig. 35) up to 10 cm diam and up to 10 mm thick, stipitate, pleuropodal, mesopodal or pseudomesopodal; coriaceous to woody, usually single, applanate, plano-convex, convex or flabelliform, with margin inflexed, acute or subacute, entire or irregular, fertile or sterile below. Pilear cover dull, dark-brown or with light-reddish, dark-yellowish, dark-grayish shades; smooth or rugose, with or without concentric zones; glabrous. Context homogeneous, firm, gold-brown (MP14A-L12), dark-grayish when old; darkened by KOH; 1-4 mm thick. Tubes up to 5 mm long, forming a surface dark-brown, usually darker than the context (MP15E11). Pores (3-)5-7 or 1 to less per mm, rounded to angular, with edges little thickened and entire, forming a surface concolorous with the tubes or lighter, whitish-gray when fresh. Stipe varying in dimension, single or branched, solid or tubular, similar to the pileus in color.

Microscopic characteristics. Pilear cover (Fig. 36b) a cortex that may become incrusted in old specimens, with hyphae arranged predominantly parallel or slightly inclined to the direction of the pilear growth. Context trimitic, composed of well arranged hyphae; generative hyphae clamped, hyaline, thin-walled, 2-4 µm diam, or modified, thickened, sometimes subsolid, up to 6 µm diam; binding hyphae branched, yellowish, predominantly subsolid, 3-4 µm diam, 1 µm or less in the finer branches; skeletal hyphae arboriform and aciculiform, yellowish-citrine or darker, up to subsolid, 5-8(-10) µm diam. Hymenium: basidia not seen in preserved specimens; basidiospores (Fig. 36c, d) predominantly globose, 7-9(-11) µm diam, hyaline to faintly yellowish, little thickened, with few conspicuous endosporic projections.

Notes. The type species of the genus Amauroderma is A. regulicolor which, in this study, is considered a synonym of A. schomburgkii.
This is the most common taxon of Amauroderma in neotropical collections. The basidiocarps show a wide variation in dimension, texture, shape and color, which has caused the description of numerous taxa which are the same microstructurally as A. schomburgkii.

Montagne & Berkeley (1844: 331) indicated that the holotype of A. schomburgkii was close to Polyporus auriscalpius Pers. They mentioned that, by examining an “authentic specimen of that plant, it appears that it is a far more elegant and very distinct species.” The type specimen of A. auriscalpium could not be examined. Based on the information in the literature, there is a possibility that both A. auriscalpium and A. schomburgkii are the same thing.

Polyporus brunneo-pictus was based on the color of the pilear cover (Berkeley, 1856: 176). Lloyd (1912: 127) mentioned that young specimens, named as such, shrink after drying and for this reason were named P. semiclausus. Both taxa are now placed under A. schomburgkii.

Polyporus cassiaecolor was also based on the color of the pileus. Bresadola (1916: 238) mentioned basidiospores as 9-12 × 9-11 µm for this taxon. My measurements for the globose basidiospores of A. schomburgkii were 7-9(-11) µm diam. When P. cassiaecolor was proposed, Berkeley (1856: 171) mentioned that its type specimen approached P. heteromorphus Lév. in some aspects, but could be distinguished by the light-colored porous surface. Both taxa are included in the synonymy of A. schomburgkii. Lloyd (1912: 121) considered P. cassiaecolor a “thick specimen of schomburgkii.”

Amauroderma mosselmanii was proposed as having “spores globuleuses, fortement colorées, brun jaundtre, de 5-6 µm fortement échinulées” (Torrend, 1920: 137) A fragment of a pileus at URM does not contain indications as being part of the type specimen of A. mosselmanii. It is almost certain however, that such a fragment belongs to a specimen identified as such by Torrend since there is an annotation which reads “legated by Torrend.” This material is part of a collection left by Torrend that remained under his curatorship at URM and is almost entirely destroyed. Therefore, it seems that the fragment of A. mosselmanii is a remnant representing this taxon. Its features match the original description of the species, though the basidiocarp appears to be in the beginning of development and no basidiospores were found. All other features agree with the characteristics of A. schomburgkii.

Polyporus ocellatus was based on the morphological characteristics of the hymenophoral pores. Berkeley (1856: 172) stated that the type specimen of this taxon was scarcely distinct from P. omphalodes Berk. (A. omphalodes). Berkeley used only the morphological features on which to draw his conclusions. However, the light-colored context of A. omphalodes would be enough to distinguish them. In addition, the distinction can be made stressing the structure of the pilear cover which is an indeterminate derm derived from a palisadoderm in A. omphalodes and a cortex in the type specimen of P. ocellatus. Also the basidiospores are larger and with thicker walls in A. omphalodes. In his discussion of P. ocellatus, Torrend (1920: 140) mentioned some similarities between this taxon and P. niger Lloyd (A. subrugosum). The latter is found in the Philippines and other Pacific Islands.

Polyporus papillatus Lloyd was based on the papillate porous surface of a specimen collected by Torrend who mentioned (Torrend, 1920: 126) that the papillate character was not a fixed feature, but nevertheless did not hesitate to accept the species. Both Lloyd (1916: 567) and Torrend (1920: 126) related P. papillatus to A. chaperi. The latter is considered a synonym of A. praetervisum in the present monograph and distinct from A. schomburgkii in whose synonymy P. papillatum is placed.

Fomes regulicolor was chosen by Murrill (1905: 306) as the type species for his genus Amauroderma. Lloyd (1912: 104) placed this taxon with others in his section Ganodermus and Bresadola (1916: 226) considered it a synonym of A. schomburgkii. Bresadola’s interpretation was mentioned when the microstructural study of A. regulicolor was presented (Teixeira & Furtado, 1965). At that time, however, the type specimen of A. schomburgkii had not been examined. After the study of this material, however, Bresadola’s interpretation was confirmed and F. regulicolor was transferred to the synonymy of A. schomburgkii.

Polyporus xylodes exemplifies another variation of morphology in the species. Its epithet was based on the zonations of the pilear cover that “resemble the section of some dicotyledonous wood” (Berkeley, 1856: 171).
Otieno (1969) reported A. schomburgkii from Africa. This would be the first record of this taxon outside the neotropics.

Examination of a large number of specimens permits me to establish the pattern of variation in A. schomburgkii. However, I am not certain concerning the significance of the diameter of the pores in this taxon. As a general character in the taxonomy of Amauroderma, I found such a feature unreliable within narrow limits, especially when no other distinguishing elements were present. In A. schomburgkii the pores are rounded to angular, small, about 5-7 per mm, in some cases with varying to 3-4. In some cases, however, the hymenophoral pores are hexagonal, with a considerably larger diameter. A specimen with such a characteristic was used to typify A. gusmanianum. In all other features, however, this taxon agrees with those included in the synonymy of A. schomburgkii. Since enough material with such a combination of characteristics has not been found for study, the decision made was to maintain Torrend’s taxon as a form of A. schomburgkii.

Key to forms of Amauroderma schomburgkii
1. Pores small, 0.15-0.25(-0.5) mm diam (more than 2 and usually 4-7 per mm). A. schomburgkii f. schomburgkii.
1. Pores large, 1-2 mm diam (1-0.5 per mm). A. schomburgkii f. gusmanianum.

21a. Amauroderma schomburgkii (Montagne & Berkeley) Torrend f. schomburgkii.
=Polyporus schomburgkii Mont. & Berk., Lond. J. Bot. 3: 331. 1844. =Fomes schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885.
=Ganoderma schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk.) Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 5: 77. 1889. Amauroderma schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk.) Lloyd ex Wakef., Kew Bull. 1934: 243. 1934. =Polyporus brunneo pictus Berk., J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 176. 1856.
=Fomes brunneopictus (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 118. 1885. =Polyporus cassiaecolor Berk., J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 171. 1856. =Fomes cassiaecolor (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885. =Polyporus glaziovi Berk. in Warming, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk. Naturh. Foren. Kbh. 31/32: 31. 1880.
=Polyporus heteromorphus Lév., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., 1115: 123. 1846. =Fomes heteromorphus (Lév.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885. Amauroderma heteromorphum (Lév.) Torrend, Brotéria Bot. 18: 139. 1920. Amauroderma mosselmanii Torrend, Brotéria Bot. 18: 137. 1920.
=Polyporus ocellatus Berk., J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 172. 1856. =Fomes ocellatus (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885. Amauroderma ocellatum (Berk.) Torrend, Brotéria Bot. 18: 140. 1920.
Amauroderma ocellatum (Berk.) Lloyd ex Wakef., Kew Bull. 1934: 243. 1934. =Polyporus papillatus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 4: 567. 1916.
Amauroderma papillatum (Lloyd) Torrend, Brotéria Bot. 18: 126. 1920. =Ganoderma papillatum (Lloyd) Sacc. & Trott. in Sacc., Syll. Fung. 23: 408. 1925. =Fomes regulicolor Berk. ex Cooke, Grevillea 15: 123. 1846.
Amauroderma regulicolor (Berk. ex Cooke) Murrill, Bull. Torrey Club 32: 367. 1905. =Polyporus regulicolor (Berk. ex Cooke) Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. (Synop. Stip. Polyp.) 3: 104. 1912.
=Polyporus semiclausus Berk., J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 193. 1856. =Fomes semiclausus (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885. =Polyporus xylodes Berk., J. Bot. & Kew Misc. 8: 171. 1856. =Fomes xylodes (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885. =Ganoderma xylodes (Berk.) Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 5: 77. 1889.

Literature :
Montagne, C.; Berkeley, M.J. 1844. London Journal of Botany. 4:42-72

Page number : 331
Description type : Original description
Description : 12. Polyporus (Mesopus) Schomburgkii, Mont. et Berk.,
Gracilis coriaceo-suberosus; pileo orbiculari depresso umbilicato quandoque laterali, fisso-lobato tenui rigidiusculo concentrice zonato radiatim ruguloso sericeo-striato fuscoumbrino intus stipiteque gracili flexuoso rugoso concolori; hymenio concaviusculo sepiario; poris minimis rotundis, dissepimentis tenuibus.
British Guiana. Schomburgk.

Pileus 0.25-2 inches across, coriaceo-suberose rather rigid about a line thick orbicular deeply incised and lohatocrenate depressed umbilicate repeatedly zoned concentrically, with the zones waved from radiating slightly rugose lines, sericeo striate, rather shining, but not the least laccate, of a brown umber as is also the internal substance. Stem 1.5 inches or more high, half a line thick, of the same colour as the pileus flexuous marked with short longitudinal pits either perfectly central or lateral. Hymenium sepia-brown approaching to black, slightly concave, even; pores very minute, scarcely visible to the naked eye, about; of a line deep : dissephnents very thin.
This species in some respects resembles Pol. auriscalpium, which has the stem occasionally central; but from an inspection of authentic specimens of that plant, it appears that it is a far more elegant and very distinct species. The pileus has not the slightest laccate crust, though this point is not always to be depended on.

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Created: 2011-02-17 13:03:40 PST (-0800) by Danny Newman (myxomop)
Last modified: 2018-03-30 13:17:14 PDT (-0700) by Erlon (Herbert Baker)
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