Name: Erastia salmonicolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Niemelä & Kinnunen
Most Confident Observations:
Copyright © 2018 Chaelthomas (Chaelthomas)
Copyright © 2018 Geoff Balme (geoff balme)
Version: 6
Previous Version 

First person to use this name on MO: Oluna & Adolf Ceska
Editors: walt sturgeon, Erlon Bailey


Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Polyporales

Family: Polyporaceae

Genus: Erastia

Notes on Taxonomy: [Edit]

Collected by : Ravenel
Country (state) :

Location details : S. Carolina, Santee River
Substrate details : burnt pine logs
Status : Type

Basionym :
Polyporus salmonicolor Berk. & M.A. Curtis, Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany 1: 104 (1849) [MB#277324]

Character E. salmonicolor H. aurantiacus H. ochraceolateritius
Pores per mm 1–2 (1–)2–3 (3–)4–6
Fresh colour salmon or pinkish orange-yellow or ochraceous brick or terracotta
Dry colour dirty pale brownish dark ochraceous, or purple reddish dark brick, or black with blood-red tint
Bruised parts (dry) almost unchanged reddish black reddish black
KOH almost unchanged, or light cherry red in subiculum and margin dark blood red dark blood red
Spore shape ellipsoid thick cylindric narrow cylindric
Spore size (average) 4–4.7 × 2.5–2.9 µm L=4.3 µm, W=2.7 µm,Q=1.6 4.9–6 × 2.2–2.6 µm L=5.4 µm, W=2.4 µm,Q=2.2 4.3–5.2 × 1.8–2.1 µm L=4.7 µm, W=2.0 µm,Q=2.4
Host in N Europe pine pine or spruce pine or spruce

Table 1. Comparison of Erastia salmonicolor, Hapalopilus aurantiacus and H. ochraceolateritius. Karstenia 45: 75–80, 2005

Brief Description: [See More | Edit]

Erastia salmonicolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Niemelä & Kinnunen, comb. nova
Basionym: Polyporus salmonicolor Berk. & M.A. Curtis, Hooker’s J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 1:104, 1849. Type: ‘Pol. salmonicolor Berk. & Curt. 1527, [U.S.A., South Carolina, Berkely Co.,] Santee River, H.W. Ravenel’ (K, studied by Ryvarden 1977).

This species was illustrated in colour in Bernicchia (2005:665, at least the upper photograph), and it and Hapalopilus aurantiacus will be illustrated by Niemelä (2005). These two species, and H. ochraceolateritius Bondartsev, have been misunderstood in most modern papers. Pouzar (1967) analysed the protologues of aurantiacus and salmonicolor and concluded that they cannot mean the same species. Donk (1967) discussed the identities and typifications of these names,
without giving any clear answer. In our opinion Hapalopilus aurantiacus, H. ochraceolateritius and Erastia salmonicolor are three well-defined species. The best differentiating characters are listed in Table 1. At least in North Europe the first one is the commonest, the others extremely rare. They all grow on coniferous trees.

Ko et al. (2001) studied phylogenetic relationships among the Hapalopilus complex. They found that ‘Hapalopilus’ salmonicolor is in fact alien to the genus, while H. rutilans and H. croceus are closely related. They proposed salmonicolor to be included in the genus Sarcoporia, as was already done by Teixeira (1986). Below we will show that this is unacceptable, and hence the new genus Erastia was described. Hapalopilus ochraceolateritius was first described by Karsten (1887) as Physisporus aurantiacus var. saloisensis P. Karst. That name was never validly transferred to species rank, and Bondartsev (1940) eventually described it as a species. Domański (1965) was one of the few who adopted Bondartsev’s idea and clearly knew the species. (NIEMELÄ ET AL 2005.: REVISIONS OF POLYPORES KARSTENIA 45, pg. 76.)

Literature :
Ryvarden, L.; Gilbertson, R.L. 1993. European polypores. Part 1. Synopsis Fungorum. 6:1-387

Page number : 304

Remarks (public) : The species is usually easy to recognize when fresh because of the yellowish orange colour and its reaction to KOH. When dry the basidiocarps darken to dark reddish or wine-coloured, become dense and rigid, and the whole structure contains abundant brown granular to crystalline matter.

Description type : Non-original description
Description : Hapalopilus salmonicolor (Berk. & Curt.) Pouz. – Ceska Mykol. 21:205, 1967. – Pot yporus salmonicolor Berk. & Curt., Hooker’s J. Bot. 1:104, 1849.

Basidiocarps annual. resupinate, moderately large to small, rarely above 10 cm in diameter, up to 8 mm thick, soft when fresh, resinous and hard when dry, mostly adnate, margin wide to narrow, light orange and byssoid; pore surface bright orange to pink when fresh, drying darker to orange brown, pores entire, mostly angular, 3-5 per mm, with thin dissepiments, often partly split in basidiocarps growing on oblique substrates; subiculum thin, light orange to pink; tube layer up to 7 mm thick, orange when fresh, reddish brown to purplish and soaked with resinous substances when dry, azonate or with a few narrow zones in section.

Hyphal system monomitic; generative hyphae with clamps, thin to thick-walled, moderately to richly branched both dichotomously and as H-connections, deeply imbedded in crystalline and amorphus matter, diameter often somewhat variable, mostly 2-4 µm, but also some up to 7 lm; some long, thick-walled, non-septate segments resembling skeletal hyphae.

Cystidia and other sterile hymenial elements absent.

Basidia clavate, 4-sterigmate, 20-30 × 5-6.5 µm, with a basal clamp.
Basidiospores oblong to short-cylindric. hyaline. thin-walled, smooth, negative in Melzer’s reagent, 3.5-5.5 × 2-2.5 µm, quite variable even within the same collection. Type of rot. White rot of dead conifers. The decay in the late stages is a yellowish. stringy rot.

Cultural characteristics. See David 1969; Stalpers 1978.

Sexuality. Heterothallic and bipolar (David 1969).

Substrata. Dead conifers, especially Pinus sylvestris and P. pinea, but also known from other Pinus spp. and more rarely also on Picea abies and Abies.
Distribution. Widespread, but rare in Europe in coniferous forest ecosystems from Northern Norway to the Mediterranean. Circumpolar through Asia to the southern United States and Cuba.

Literature :
Budington, A.B.; Gilbertson, R.L. 1973. Some Southwestern lignicolous Hymenomycetes of special interest. Southwestern Naturalist. 17:409-422

Page number : 419

Remarks (public) : The bright orange color and cheesy consistency of fresh basidiocarps and the dark reddish-brown discoloration of the tubes on dried specimens are distinctive. Contextual hyphae in cotton blue are partially coated with a gummy incrusting material. This dissolves in KOH and does not show in KOH-phloxine mounts. Lowe (1966) reports the hyphae as rarely branched. Our specimens show much branched, thick-walled hyphae to be very abundant. Although the three types of hyphae found in the subiculum of P. salmonicolor all have clamp connections, they represent a functional trimitic hyphal system. Lowe reports P. salmonicolor as being associated with a brown rot. Our specimens are associated with a soft, yellowish, stringy rot.

Description type : Non-original description
Description : Poria salmonicolor (Berk. et Curt.) Cke., Grevillea 14: 112, 1886.
Polyporus salmonicolor Berk. et Curt., Hooker’s Jour. Bot. 1: 104. 1849.

Basidiocarps annual, resupinate, cheesy in consistency when fresh, developing as small separate or confluent patches scattered along the underside of ponderosa pine logs, individual fruiting patches effused up to 10 cm; pore surface bright orange when fresh, discoloring to a dark reddish-brown on age or drying (Brick Red to Carob Brown), and becoming resinous in appearance, the pores angular, 3-4 per mm; margin fertile and concolorous with the pore surface or narrowly sterile and paler when dried; context pale orange when dried (Ochraceous-Orange to Orange-Buff), soft-fibrous, azonate, up to 3 mm thick; tube layer sharply distinct from context when dry, dark reddish-brown, up to 2 mm thick.

Context tissue briefly discoloring dark reddish purple in KOH, the hyphae of 3 types; some thin-walled, nodose-septate, 2-5 µm diam; some very thick-walled, occasionally nodose-septate, with rare branching, 2-3 µm in diam, others much branched and resembling binding hyphae, 2.5-5 µm in diam, thick-walled, occasionally nodose-septate; tramal tissue compacted, hyphae thin-walled, nodose-septate, 2-4 in diam; cystidia lacking; basidia clavate, 4-sterigmate, 12-14 × 4-5 µm; basidiospores cylindric, hyaline, negative in Melzer’s reagent, 4-5 × 2-2.5 µm.

Associated with a yellow stringy saprot of ponderosa pine slash. (Fig. 9).

Specimens examined: ABB 1486, on ponderosa pine log, Gen. Hitchcock Picnic Area, Santa Catalina Mts., Coronado Natl. Forest, Pima County, Arizona; P. D. Keener, no number, on ponderosa pine log, Camp Lawton, Santa Catalina Mts., Coronado Natl. Forest, Pima County, Arizona.

Literature :
Lowe, J.L. 1966. Polyporaceae of North America. The genus Poria. Technical Publication of the State University College of Forestry at Syracuse University. 90:1-183

Page number : 79

Remarks (internal) : The type of Polyporus oxydatus is sterile but all characters present agree with the concept presented here. Sarcoporia polyspora is the type species for the genus Sarcoporia Karst.
This striking species has been much misunderstood, as can be inferred from the extensive synonomy. The strong tendency of the mature tubes to dry into a dark resinous mass is a characteristic useful for recognition.

Fresh specimens may resemble Poria spissa in color but that species differs in having pores 6-8 per mm, simple-septate hyphae, and allantoid spores. Very young material resemble Poria bombycina which differs in having broader spores, 3-4 µm wide.

Poria placenta as here interpreted is also similar but differs in being pink when fresh, and its tissue does not change color in KOH. This specific name has had a variety of applications. Bresadola (Ann. Mycol. 1:77. 1903), and Bourdot and Galzin (1928, p. 664) used this name for the plant here described as P. salmonicolor, and the latter authors appear to have included this concept under an additional name, P. aurantiaca (Rostk.). Identifications by other competent mycologists indicate a thoroughly confused concept associated with this name. See also the discussion by Bourdot and Galzin (1928, p. 689) of Polyporus incarnatus (Schw.) Fries which has been confused with P. placenta. A specimen of P. incarnata at BPI annotated by Bresadola as “orig!” is Trametes serialis parasitized by a pink hyphomycete; and two specimens at Kew, so identified by Fries, are P. rixosa

Literature :
Berkeley, M.J.; Curtis, M.A. 1849. Decades of fungi. Decades XXI-XXII. North and South Carolina Fungi. Hooker’s Journal of Botany and Kew Garden Miscellany. 1:97-104

Page number : 104
Description type : Original description
Description : 219. Polyporus salmonicolor, Berk. and Curt.

Resupinatus crassus mycelio mucedineo albo, poris rotundis rubellis demum elongatis purpureofuscis. Curt., 1527.

Hab. On burnt pine logs. Santee River, South Carolina. Mr. Ravenel.
Effused, resupinate, several inches broad, thin near the margin, thick in the centre, of a rich salmon-colour, at length brown. Mycelium white, mucedinous. Pores rounded, small, at length torn and angular. When fresh this appears to be very tender and easily injured, in which state it becomes dark purple brown, with a resinous aspect.

Apparently the same species occurs in Sir W. J. Hooker’s Herbarium under the name of P. spissus, so marked by Schweinitz, but he sent a very different thing under that name to Fries. It does not appear to be closely allied to any described species. Its nearest affinities are with P. purpureus, Fr., and P. rhodellus, Fr., or better with P. carneofuscus.

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