Abstract- Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences of members of the Craterellus cornucopioides complex (Black Trumpet mushrooms) supports the taxonomic separation of Craterellus fallax apart from C. cornucopioides, with which it has been synonymized in the past. Examination of Pinus virginiana ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tips and sequence comparison with other insufficiently identified environmental sequences from roots of Tsuga, Quercus, and possibly Castanea supports a broad host range in North America for the ECM symbiont C. fallax. This is the first molecular confirmation of an ECM symbiont with P. virginiana, which associates with a wide diversity of ECM fungi, and the first report of a Cantharellaceae symbiont with this tree, an eastern North American two-needled pine. Three unique species in the C. cornucopioides complex are recovered based on phylogenetic analysis: C. fallax, C. cornucopioides, and an unidentified Craterellus species similar to C. fallax but smaller in stature with smaller spores.
“Mushroom up to 6 cm across, trumpet to funnel shaped, thin, tough, hollow; caps sometimes yellow, brown, or gray, but typically very dark brown to black, inner top surface slightly feltlike and outer surface smooth; hymenium slightly wrinkled (not ridged), ash-gray, brownish, salmon or rose-tinged, rarely yellow; stem gray, brown, or black; flesh relatively thin and tough; occasionally entire mushroom yellow with only stem base black; odor pleasant; taste mild when raw. The white spore print of Cr. cornucopioides has been used to distinguish it from the yellow/salmon-tinged spore print of Cr. fallax when they are recognized as separate species. Under the microscope: basidiospores off-round to ellipsoid, smooth, colorless, (7) 11 to 15 (20) × (5) 7 to 11 μm; clamp connections absent.”6