Name: Psilocybe wrightii
Citation: Mycotaxon 7(2): 251 (1978)
Preferred Synonyms:Psilocybe caerulescens Murrill
Deprecated Synonyms: Psilocybe villarrealiae Guzmán, Psilocybe weilii Guzmán, Stamets & F. Tapia, Psilocybe mixaeensis R. Heim, Psilocybe mazatecorum R. Heim, Psilocybe caerulescens var. nigripes R. Heim, Psilocybe bispora Guzmán, Franco-Mol. & Ram.-Guill., Psilocybe caribaea Guzmán, T.J. Baroni & Tapia, Psilocybe heliconiae Guzmán, Saldarr., Pineda, G. García & L.-F. Velázquez, Psilocybe ombrophila, Psilocybe subannulata E. Horak & Guzmán, Psilocybe caerulescens var. weilii
Psilocybe wrightii was described from Argentina (Guzmán 1978) and later reported from southern Brazil (Guzmán & Cortez 2004), where it has been recently encountered in several localities (Silva et al. 2006, 2008). The basidiomes grow solitary or gregarious in riparian forests or near small rivers in the autumn (April to June). Based on basidiospore size and shape, presence of pleurocystidia, and the bluing feature of the basidiomes, Guzmán (1983) placed the species in Psilocybe Sect. Cordisporae, which is widely represented in the Neotropical area.
Psilocybe heliconiae Guzmán et al., described from Colombia, shares similar size and shape of the basidiospores, pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia as well as similarities in the basidiome appearance (Guzmán et al. 1994). This similarity was emphasized in Guzmán et al. (1994) and Guzmán & Cortez (2004), but only with evaluation of additional collections to establish the variation from young to mature basidiomes can the taxonomic relationships between these species be clarified.
Chemical analysis – After extraction, on sorting analysis, all the samples showed an intense characteristic reaction with the chromogenic agent in thin layer chromatography, presenting Rf values of 0.39 for psilocin and 0.5 for psilocybin. Psilocybin and psilocin were also detected through gas chromatography. Derivatization increased the sensitivity of the detector (Lanças 1993). This reaction was performed with BSTFA, producing bis- trimethyl-silyl-psilocybin and bis-trimethyl-silyl-psilocin, which showed a retention time of 10.683 min and 10.592 min, respectively. The identity of these derivatives was confirmed by the presence of the characteristic fragments m/z 58, 189 and 261 for bis-trimethyl-silyl-psilocybin and 58, 290 and 348 for bis- trimethyl-silyl-psilocin. Differences in the psilocin and psilocybin contents in hallucinogenic mushrooms depends on factors such as developmental stage, weather conditions, and the availability of soluble nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil (Tsujikawa et al. 2003). These results confirm the presence of psilocin and psilocybin for the species and, consequently, the hallucinogenic potential of Psilocybe wrightii.
Cortés-Pérez, Alonso & Ramírez, Florencia & Guzmán, Gastón & Dávalos, Laura & Rockefeller, Alan & Ramírez-Cruz, Virginia. (2020). Type studies in five species of Psilocybe (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Nova Hedwigia. 112. 10.1127/nova_hedwigia/2020/0609.