Name: Psilocybe neoxalapensis
Author: Guzmán, Ram.-Guill. & Halling
Citation: Sydowia 61(2): 220 (2009)
Deprecated Synonyms: Psilocybe novoxalapensis Guzmán & J.Q. Jacobs 2005
Due to an editorial omission, the original name of this species, P. novoxalapensis Guzmán & Jacobs, is invalid (nom. nud.; Guzmán & al. 2005) and therefore the new name P. neoxalapensis is proposed. The taxon is reported from several localities in prov. Veracruz, Mexico. The distinctive, morphological features of this Psilocybe, besides its smaller, subrhomboid, thick-walled spores and its long pseudorhiza, are the presence of two types of cheilocystidia and the rare or absent pleurocystidia. Psilocybe neoxalapensis has bluing basidomes and thus belongs to sect. Cordisporae, following GuzmánÂ’s classification (1983).
Pileus (8-) 10-15 (-30) mm diam, conical to campanulate, umbonate, papillate, lubricous, smooth, slightly striate at the margin when moist, irregularly wrinkled or sulcate to sublobulate with age, hygrophanous, dark reddish brown or brown chocolate, fading to brownish-yellow or olive-brown. Lamellae adnexed or somewhat sinuate, violaceous-brown or dark reddish-brown, mottled, with whitish even edges. Stipes (30-) 40-50 × 1-2 (-3) mm, cylindrical, uniform, hollow, flexuous, reddish-brown or orange-brown paler at the apex, subpruinose above, covered with small floccose, whitish fibrils toward the base, frequently arranged in several subrings; base with an inconspicuous yellow-mustard mycelium, with a well formed pseudorhiza, up to 150 mm long, flexuous, whitish, frequently tapering in a bulb. Veil poorly developed, as a white or grayish fugacious cottony fibrils. Context thin and translucent, whitish to brownish in the pileus, yellowish-brown or brownish-red on the stipe, caerulescent. Odor and taste farinaceous. KOH stains black-brown pileus and stipe. All parts except lamellae bluing to blackish.
Spores (3.5-) 5-6 (-7) x 4-5 × 3-4 µm, subrhomboid on face-view, subellipsoid in side-view, thick-walled, up to 1 µm thick, yellowish-brown, with a broad germ pore and an acute short appendage. Basidia 14-25 × 4.5-7.5 µm, 4- spored, hyaline, ventricose or subcylindric, with a median constriction. Pleurocystidia absent or rare, when present hyaline, subventricose or subfusoid, (8-) 12-20 (-28) x (3-) 4-6 (-8) µm, with an acute apex, either short or long neck, sometimes irregularly branched. Cheilocystidia hyaline of two types, A: (11-) 15-27 (-37) x (3-) 5-7 (-9) µm, sublageniform with a long or short neck, sometimes irregularly and strongly branched in the neck; type B: (16-) 25-32 (-70) x (4-) 6-9 (-14) µm, subventricose-subcylindrical or narrowly utriform, apex globose, acute or submoniliform, sometimes with a blunt apex similar to a leptocystidium. Subhymenium subcellular, up to 15 µm thick, with hyaline elements, 3-5 µm wide, thin- to thick-walled, incrusted with yellow pigment. Hymenophoral trama regular, with hyaline to yellowish, 3-20 µm wide thin-walled hyphae. Pileipellis a subgelatinized thin layer, with prostrate, hyaline 1.5-2.5 µm wide hyphae. Subpellis subcellular, with hyaline to yellowish, thin- to thick-walled, incrusted elements, 2-10 µm wide. Caulocystidia 11-40 × 8-14 µm, rare, hyaline, vesiculose or narrowly utriform. Basal mycelium formed by branching setaceous hyphae, up to 90 × 3-4 µm, walls 1-1.5 µm thick, yellowish-brown, arising from hyaline clamped hyphae in the mycelium. Clamp connections present.