Name: Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.
Most Confident Observations:
Copyright © 2008 Brennen Nelson
Copyright © 2011 Joshua Hutchins (Joshruum)
Copyright © 2008 Edward Barge (landsnorkler)
Copyright © 2019 Dallan (NOTMUSHROOM2THINK )
Version: 4
Previous Version 

First person to use this name on MO: Nathan Wilson
Editors: Alan Rockefeller, Erlon Bailey


Rank: Species

Status: Accepted

Name: Panaeolus subbalteatus

ICN Identifier: missing

Index Fungorum search

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Author: (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.

Citation: Syll. fung. 5: 1124, 1887

Synonym(s):Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Britzelm.

Deprecated Synonyms: Panaeolus cinctulus (Bolton) Sacc., Agaricus cinctulus Bolton, Coprinus cinctulus (Bolton) Gray, Panaeolus dunensis Bon & Courtec.


Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Genus: Panaeolus

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Brief Description: [See More | Edit]

Cap: (1.5)2 — 5(5.5) cm, hemispherical to convex when young to broadly umbonate or plane in age, smooth, hygrophanous, dark dull red-brown when moist, whitish when dry. Often with a darker band along the margin (zonate) which disappears as the mushroom completely dries out. The flesh is red-brown to cream-colored and thin.

Gills: Close, adnate to adnexed, cream-colored when young, later mottled digny brown to soot-black. Gill edges white and slightly fringed.

Spore Print: Jet Black

Spores: 12 × 8 µm, smooth, ellipitic-citriform, thick-walled.

Stipe: (2)3.5 — 8(10) cm long, (2)3 — 7(9) mm thick, equal or tapered at the ends, reddish brown to whitish, pruinose, hollow, no veil remnants, longitudinally white-fibrillose and white-powdered, striate at the apex or twisting vertically down the entire length of the stipe, Stem base and mycelium occasionally staining blue.

Taste: Farinaceous when fresh, saliferous (salty) when dried.

Odor: Slightly farinaceous.

Microscopic features:

Diagnostic Description:

Smooth black spores differentiate this species from its close look-alike Panaeolina foenisecii.

Relatively meaty Panaeolus species that grows on lawns and horse manure. Sometime specimens have a blue stem base. Sometimes other parts of the mushroom stain blue, especially if exposed to the sun for long periods of time.


A cosmopolitan species, it is found in all 50 states of the USA and almost every country in the world. Commonly found in the pacific northwest, the northeast, and the southeastern USA.

This is without a doubt the worlds most widely distributed psilocybin mushroom.


Solitary to gregarious to cespitose on compost piles, well fertilized lawns, gardens and pastures, rarely found directly on horse dung. Spring – Fall .

Look Alikes:

Panaeolina foenisecii is also found on lawns and looks very, very similar.

Panaeolus papilionaceus also looks similar and can be distinguished by the presence of appendiculate veil remnants around the cap margin.


Contains the psychoactive alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin.

Commonly eaten for its psychoactive effect.

When dried it is roughly as potent, gram per gram, as Psilocybe cubensis.


Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.


Most people know this mushroom as Panaeolus subbalteatus or “subbs”.

Some other common names include “Weed Panaeolus”, “Girdled Panaeolus”, “Banded Mottlegill” and “Red Caps”.

Descriptions: [Create]


Add Comment
More detail reference and perhaps more details?
By: Nathan Wilson (nathan)
2013-05-09 19:24:15 CDT (-0400)

Index Fungorum and Mycobank still list Panaeolus subbalteatus and Panaeolus cinctulus as distinct. Can you provide more info on my ‘Gerhardt 1996’ considers them the same?

By: Alan Rockefeller (Alan Rockefeller)
2008-12-14 02:23:38 CST (-0500)

Most current name for Panaeolus subbalteatus is Panaeolus cinctulus according to Gerhardt 1996

Number of users interested in this name: 2