First person to use this name on MO: Herbert Baker
Name: Ganoderma parvulum
Citation: Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 29: 605 (1902)
Deprecated Synonyms: Ganoderma stipitatum (Murrill) Murrill
Ganoderma parvulum may be recognized by its generally small basidiomata, hard pileus crust, resinous dark bands contrasting with the pale context, cylindrical pileipellis cells with apical granulations, and small basidiospores with free pillars. The species is morphologically similar to G. perzonatum and G. weberianum, but G. perzonatum has larger basidiomata, a soft pilear laccate crust (easy to penetrate with the fingernail), a not fully homogeneous context, and pileipellis cells with concentric elongate granulations while G. weberianum has a not fully homogeneous context that changes to yellow when cut and basidiospores with subfree pillars. In his description of G. parvulum, Ryvarden (2000, 2004) reported “the lower part of context dark brown, darker than the intermediate and upper paler brown parts,” which, in our terminology, is the equivalent to a not fully homogenous context. He also noted pileipellis cells without incrustations. He synonymized G. parvulum with G. stipitatum, recorded by him for Brazil (Ryvarden 2000). We agree with Ryvarden (2004) that they are synonyms, but the name G. parvulum has priority over G. stipitatum. Steyaert (1980) cited a wrong reference for the G. parvulum protologue (“North. Am. Fl. 9: 13, 1908”), and this was apparently followed by Ryvarden (2004). Ryvarden (2004) cited G. stipitatum from Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela, but some of the cited specimens have a dark brown context and larger basidiospores and may represent another species (unpublished observations by M.G. Torres-Torres). Gomes-Silva et al. (2011) and Welti & Courtecuisse (2010) cited this species (as G. stipitatum) from Brazil, Belize, and French Guiana. The specimens from USA (NY) noted by Welti & Courtecuisse (2010) and revised by Torres- Torres in 2008 correspond to G. parvulum [= G. stipitatum]. Rajchenberg & de Meijer (1990) cited G. parvulum from Paraná, Brazil (specimen de Meijer 850); but Ryvarden & de Meijer (2002) reported de Meijer 850 and 1418 as G. resinaceum. Our examinations show both collections to be very different from G. resinaceum and with the cream context and smaller basidiospores that corresponds to G. parvulum.
Ganoderma parvulum Murrill, Bull. Torrey bot. Club. 29: 605 (1902). Figs 8, 22
= Ganoderma stipitatum (Murrill) Murrill, N. Amer. Fl. 9: 122 (1908).
Basidiomata 1.7-5.5 × 2.2-4 × 0.7-1.3 cm, annual, substipitate to sessile, with a contracted base, occasionally imbricate, woody. Pileus semicircular, round-flabelliform to flabelliform, convex to applanate; surface glabrous, rivulose to slightly radially rugose, hard, glossy to dull; with a laccate crust, not cracked, hard (difficult to penetrate with the fingernail), but easily lost and then leaving the surface relatively homogeneously dull, zonate; surface reddish-black to violet-brown (11F4) in 80-90% of the pileus, reddish-brown (9E8) towards the margin; margin pure white or yellowish, entire to slightly lobulate, thin, smooth. Substipe when present 0.9-1.5 × 1-1.5 cm, short and thick, thinner toward the base, horizontal, slightly darker than pileus, solid. Context 0.4-0.8 cm thick, fibrous, homogeneous, cream (4A3), azonate; with resinous dark bands up to half of the context. Pores 5-6 per mm, round, woody; pore surface yellowish-white (3A2) to light yellow (4A4) when fresh, darkening to ochraceous or yellowish-brown (6E8) when aging and drying; tubes 0.2-0.4 cm long, unstratified, dark brown contrasting with the context. Hyphal system dimitic. Contextual trama: generative hyphae 2.4-5.6 µm diam., thin-walled, with conspicuous clamps, non-branched, hyaline to yellowish; skeletal hyphae 5.6-12 µm diam., thick-walled to generally solid, septate to non-septate, arboriform with few branches, moderately branched, golden-yellow. Hymenophoral trama as the contextual trama. Pileipellis a crustohymeniderm, cells 48-60 × 7.2-9.6 µm, cylindrical to narrowly clavate, entire or rarely with one lateral protuberance, thick-walled to solid, apex with granulations, golden-yellow, amyloid. Basidiospores 8-9 × 6-6.8 µm, Q = 1.18-1.38, broadly ellipsoid, apex truncate, with apical germ pore, yellowishbrown, inamyloid; perisporium wrinkled, reddish-brown; exosporium with inter-walled pillars up to 0.3 µm thick, free; endosporium wrinkled. Basidia not observed. Cystidia absent. Chlamydospores 9.6-10.5 µm, globose, thick-walled, with inter-walled very thick pillars, yellow.
Habitat: Frondose forest, mixed ombrophilous alluvial forest.
Material examined: Nicaragua, without data, C.L. Smith s.n. (NY, lectotype of G. parvulum; BR, isolectotype); without data, C.L. Smith s.n. (NY, lectotype of G. stipitatum; BR, isolectotype).
Created: 2014-07-12 20:38:58 CDT (-0500) by Herbert Baker
Last modified: 2018-03-21 14:44:08 CDT (-0500) by Herbert Baker
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