Name: Climacodon sanguineus (Beeli) Maas Geest.
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First person to use this name on MO: GALL Alain
Editors: Chaelthomas

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Nomenclature:

Rank: Species

Status: Accepted

Name: Climacodon sanguineus

Author: (Beeli) Maas Geest.

Citation: Maas Geesteranus, R.A. 1971. Hydnaceous fungi of the eastern old world. Verhandelingen Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Afdeling Natuurkunde. 60(3):1-176

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Climacodon sanguineus (Beeli) Maas Geesteranus (1971: 131) ≡ Hydnum sanguineum Beeli (1926: 210)
≡ Donkia sanguinea (Beeli) Maas Geesteranus (1967: 101)
The type specimen is kept in a sheet with two envelopes glued on it. Both have the same herbarium no: Mme. Goossens 416 (Fig. 2a). The first envelope contains a single basidioma and a label that reads M. Beeli 1353, while the second envelope has two fragmented basidiomata (Fig. 2b). The detailed observations by Maas Geesteranus (1967) on these specimens are very similar to ours (Fig 2c–j): monomitic structure, presence of scattered clamps on context hyphae, presence of cylindrical thin-walled hyphal endings (gloeocystidia according to Maas Geesteranus, 1967) in spine apices, double-walled cystidia, and small non-amyloid spores. In addition, we have observed that clamp connections have a short outgrowth on the opposite side of the septum, reminiscent of a double clamp. Scattered clamp connections were also observed on the hyphae of the core of the spines.
A more complete description, including observations on specimen JD 560 in BR (Fig. 2m), is provided below. This specimen is optimally preserved and has abundant spores.
Basidiomata (Fig. 2m) stipitate, gregarious or forming small groups (2–3). Pileus up to 40 mm diam., bright coral red to blood red bands that alternate with paler bands, funnel-shaped. Margin lobulate-crenate, concentrically zonate, with slightly villose (lens!) bands that alternate with glabrous bands. Stipe 30–35 × 3–5 mm, cylindrical to slightly tapering towards the base (up to 6 mm diam.), central, solid, pinkish red, paler than the pileus, smooth to villose at the base (lens!). Pileus context up to 1 mm thick, pinkish white. Stipe context of the same colour or sligthly paler than the pileus. Hymenophore hydnoid. Spines cylindrical, with acute apices, subulate, up to 3 × 0.1 mm broad, dense, not fused, decurrent, coral red, with paler apices.
Hyphal system monomitic, generative hyphae septate, with scattered clamps in the pileus context and the core of the spines. Clamp connections simple, some with a short outgrowth on the opposite side of the septum and hence reminiscent of a double-clamp. Generative hyphae 5–9 μm broad and often entangled with “connectives et sarmenteuses” hyphae as noted by Maas Geesteranus (1967). These hyphae are short, sinuous, thin-walled and sometimes arise from generative hyphae, but do not constitute binding hyphae. This type of hyphae is absent from the hymenophore context as Maas Geesteranus observed (1967). Spine apices composed of cylindrical thin-walled terminations. Cystidia (Fig. 2k–l) rather abundant, scattered on the spine surface, long and cylindrical, thick-walled, with walls of unequal thickness (up to 2 μm thick), forming a discontinuous lumen, sometimes crystalliferous at the apex. Basidia 20–25 × 4–5 μm, cylindrical to clavate, 4-spored, clampless. Basidiospores 4–5 × 2–2.5(–3) μm, ellipsoid, hyaline, without iodine reactions (Fig. 2j).
Specimens examined:—CONGO. Kalo: Ubangi, grupés sur tronc mort dans la forêt sèche, 1924, V. Goossens- Fontana 416 (holotype; herb. M. Beeli 1353 in BR). GABON. Ogooué-Ivindo: station d ́Ipossa-Makokou, in secondary forest, on the ground, along a rivulet, 26 March 2008, J. Degreef 560 (BR5020180728797).

Remarks:—Climacodon sanguineus is morphologically recognized by its entirely bright red stipitate basidiomata with a hydnoid hymenophore. Microscopically, the monomitic hyphal system, the simple clamp connections, the characteristic cylindrical thin walled hyphal terminations of the spine apices and the double-walled cystidia are diagnostic. We confirm here the placement of C. sanguineus in Climacodon using molecula data, since it groups with C. septentrionalis, the type species of Climacodon.
Climacodon roseomaculatus (Henn. & E. Nyman in Hennings 1900: 10) Jülich (1982: 400) is a closely related species sharing with C. sanguineus a similar colour, hymenophore configuration and spores. Nevertheless, C. roseomaculatus lacks a well-developed stipe and has thin to thick-walled gloeocystidia.

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Created: 2015-05-13 11:10:22 CDT (-0400) by GALL Alain (GALLA-TAHITI)
Last modified: 2018-04-03 06:39:31 CDT (-0400) by Chaelthomas (Chaelthomas)
Viewed: 35 times, last viewed: 2018-06-23 04:06:34 CDT (-0400)
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