Name: Amauroderma rude (Berk) Torrend
Most Confident Observations:
Copyright © 2010 Ian Dodd Kundabung NSW Australia
Copyright © 2012 Gerhard Koller (Gerhard)
Copyright © 2018 Chaelthomas (Chaelthomas)
Version: 5
Previous Version 

First person to use this name on MO: Ian Dodd (kk) ( Australia
Editors: Erlon, Eddee, Joseph D. Cohen


Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Polyporales

Genus: Amauroderma

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Notes on Taxonomy: [Edit]

Remarks : combination also proposed by G. Cunningham 1950, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 75: 239

Basionym :
Polyporus rudis Berk., Annals and Magazine of Natural History 3: 323 (1839)

Collected by : Gunn
Substrate details : rotten wood
Status : Type
Locality: Australia

Brief Description:

Literature :
Furtado, J.S. 1981. Taxonomy of Amauroderma (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. 34:1-109

Page number : 71
Description type : Non-original description
Description : Amauroderma rude (Berkeley) Torrend, Brotéria Bot. 18: 127. 1920. Figs. 31-34. Type. R. Gunn (BPI, merotype), Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania), Australia.

Macroscopic characteristics. Pileus (Figs. 31, 32a, 33, 34a) 2-25 cm diam, 230 mm thick, stipitate, mesopodal, pleuropodal or pseudomesopodal, soft, corky, sometimes coriaceous, single or, occasionally, connate, plano-convex, umbilicate or infundibuliform, circular, orbicular or reniform, with margin inflexed, sometimes involute, acute or obtuse, entire, regular or undulate, fertile or sterile below. Pilear cover light brown, close to beige (MP11F6), olivaceous (MP13F4) or darker (MP15A4) going to deep-brown (MP8J6), ferrugineous or even blackish (MP48C6), rugose, often sulcate and wrinkled, zonate or not, finely velutinous. Context homogeneous, firm but soft, usually cottony, light yellowish-brown towards the cinnamomeous (MP12H7), olivaceous (MP13F4) or darker (MP8J8) towards ferrugineous (in specimens with context and tubes also ferrugineous), darkening with KOH; 1-20 mm thick. Tubes 0.5-10 mm long, forming a surface either concolorous with the context (in specimens with dark-colored context) or darker than the context (in specimens with light-colored context). Pores (1.5-)24(-5) per mm, angular, with edges entire or slightly lacerate, thin, or with edges rounded and thick, forming a surface whitish or yellowish when fresh, honey or grayish and usually ferrugineous in old basidiocarps. Stipe short or long and concolorous with the pileus.

Microscopic characteristics. Pilear cover (Figs. 32b, c, 34b, c) a trichoderm formed by loose generative hyphae with clamp-connections and usually darkcolored walls, (2-)3-5(-6) µm diam, upon a 100-180 µm thick crust derived from a palisadoderm, an indeterminate derm, or a paraderm derived from incrustation of the trichodermal elements and adjacent context hyphae. At juvenile stage the pilear cover a loose trichoderm upon a paradermic crust. In old basidiocarps the trichodermal elements sometimes disappearing after long exposure to the weather, only the crust remaining. Context formed by interweaving hyphae; generative hyphae clamped, hyaline, thin-walled, 1-3 µm diam, or slightly thickened, modified, 2-4(-5) µm diam; binding hyphae faintly yellowish, branched, usually subsolid, 1-2(-3) µm diam; skeletal hyphae aciculiform and arboriform, faintly yellowish (in specimen with lighter context) to ferrugineous (in specimens with dark context), thickened to subsolid, 2-6(-8) µm diam. Hymenium: basidia seen only in fresh specimens, clavate, hyaline, thin-walled, with variable dimensions; basidiospores (Figs. 32c, 34d) globose to subglobose, 9-11 × 7.5-9 µm yellowish, sometimes darker, with very conspicuous endosporic projections.
Distribution. In tropical America from Paraguay, in the south, to Guadeloupe and West Indies, in the north, within the neotropical limits, and from Africa and Tasmania to Hong Kong.

Notes. Outside of the neotropical regions, specimens of Amauroderma rude have been named differently. They show in common with neotropical material, however, a combination of characters such as: (1) soft, corky or spongy basidiocarps (usually harder after drying); (2) pilear cover with a trichoderm formed by loose generative hyphae (more conspicuous in younger specimens) on a crust derived from a palisadoderm, indeterminate derm or paraderm; and (3) basidiospores globose to subglobose, 9-11 × 7.5-9 µm yellowish to darker, with conspicuous endosporic projections. The only way to distinguish such geographically distant groups is through the darker color of the pilear cover, context and tubes in neotropical specimens. Due to the lack of other characteristics that would induce the inclusion of both groups under the same species or would allow their specific distinction, it was concluded that the specimens belong to the same species, under two geographically isolated varieties. Whether this taxonomic conclusion based on morphological characteristics is close to the truth or not, only future cultural studies of isolates from both varieties will tell. Meanwhile, the following is proposed for the characterization of the two varieties.
Key to the Varieties of Amauroderma rude
1. Paleotropical; basidiocarps with pilear cover yellowish-brown, greenish-brown or rarely blackish; context pale yellowish-brown or cinnamon, sometimes olivaceous; tubes concolorous with the context; pores 1.5-3 per mm. A. rude var. rude.
1. Neotropical; basidiocarps with deep-brown, ferrugineous or blackish pilear cover; context and tubes ferrugineous; pores 3-4(-5) per mm. A. rude var. intermedium.

20a. Amauroderma rude (Berkeley) Torrend var. rude. Figs. 31, 32. =Polyporus rudis Berk., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3: 323. 1839.
=Fomes rudis (Berk.) Cooke, Grevillea 13: 117. 1885.
=Ganoderma rude (Berk.) Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 5: 75. 1889.
Amauroderma rude (Berk.) G. H. Cunningham, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 75: 239. 1950. =Fomes pullatus Berk. ex Cooke, Grevillea 15: 21. 1886.
Ganoderma pullatum (Berk. ex Cooke) Pat., Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 5: 75. 1889. Amauroderma pullatum (Berk. ex Cooke) G. H. Cunningham, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 75: 238. 1950.
=Polyporus rugatus Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 7: 1110. 1922. =Polyporus rugiceps Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 7: 1329. 1924.
Type. R. Gunn (BPI, merotype), Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania), Australia. Distribution. AFRICA. Natal, Hopevale, E. M. Doidge, Jan 1935, in a wattle plantation (BPI, ex-SRGH 27714). HONG KONG (K, type of F. pullatus). AUSTRALIA. J. T. Paul (BPI Lloyd Herb. 49712, as type of P. rugatus); Tasmania, R. Gunn (BPI, merotype of P. rudis), Hobart, R. Rodway (BPI Lloyd Herb. 55664); New South Wales, National Park, J. B. Cleland, Mai 1919 (BPI); Victoria, Rev. James Wilson (BPI Lloyd Herb. 55543, as type of P. rugiceps).
Notes. Further information on the distribution of this taxon is given by Cunningham (1965: 142) in the treatment of polypores of New Zealand. It appears, however, that A. rude var. rude is the only representative of the genus that has been identified for Australia.
Lloyd (1912: 111) mentioned that A. rude var. rude would be very close to Polyporus rugosus Blume & Nees (see treatment of this species under Taxa of uncertain affinity) whose spores were larger than in the species in question. As is mentioned in the discussion of P. rugosus, it is possible that this combination may become the valid name for the specimens named in this monograph as A. subrugosum (the decision depends on examination of the type specimen of the first taxon). If these two entities are proved to be the same, then the assumption of Lloyd for the proximity of A. rude var. rude to the taxa cited does not seem appropriate. The analysis presented for A. subrugosum will show that the organisms are distinct.

Literature :
Cunningham, G.H. 1965. Polyporaceae of New Zealand. Bulletin of the New Zealand Department of Industrial Research. 164:1-304

Page number : 142
Description type : Non-original description
Description : Amauroderma rude (Berkeley) G. H. Cunningham,
Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 75 : 239, 1950.
Polyporus rudis Berk., Ann. nat. Hist. 3 : 323, 1839. Fomes rudis (Berk.) Cke., Grevillea 13 : 117, 1885. Fomes pullatus Berk. ex Cke., Grevillea 13 : 117, 1885, nom. nud. Polystictus rudis (Berk.) Cke., Grevillea 14 : 86, 1886. Polyporus rugatus Lloyd, Myeol. Notes 66 : 1110, 1922. Polyporus rugiceps Lloyd, Mycol. Notes 73 : 1329, 1924. Amauroderma pullatus (Berk.) G. H. Cunn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 75 : 238, 1950. [Polyporus pullatus Berk., Herb. Kew.]

Hymenophore terrestrial, annual, solitary or occasionally two or three pilei arising from a single stem, coriaceous, attached by a central stem. Pilei orbicular or irregularly so, slightly convex, sometimes umbilicate, 5-12 cm diameter, 0.8-1 cm thick; pileus surface dingy ferruginous, darker when old, concentrically sulcate and occasionally with concentric zones of different shades of brown, radiately rugulose, sometimes slightly so, at first delicately tomentose with erect clavate hairs coloured chestnut, becoming glabrous ; cortex to 0.25 mm thick, dark brown or black, of densely intertwined cemented hyphae chestnut in section; margin acute, slightly inturned or plane, crenate, sometimes coarsely lobed; hymenial surface slightly concave, sometimes decurrent, ferruginous, with a sterile border 2-3 mm wide.

Stems 6-16 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm diameter, solid, ferruginous, with a tough cortex 0.25 mm thick. Pores ferruginous, to 7 mm long, round or compressed, 1-3 (sometimes 3-4) per mm; 0.3-1 mm diameter; dissepiments 60-85 µm thick, equal or with apices slightly expanded, partly occluding pores, velutinate. Context tan, to 3 mm thick, of mainly parallel hyphae radiately arranged; binding hyphae to 6 µm diameter, freely branched, sparsely septate, walls hyaline, 1-1 – 5 µm thick; often collapsing; generative hyphae to 3 µm diameter, branched, septate, walls hyaline, 0.2 µm thick. Hymenial layer to 15 µm deep, a close palisade of basidia and paraphyses, soon collapsing. Basidia clavate, 12-16 × 5-6 µm, bearing 4 spores; sterigmata arcuate, to 3 µm long. Paraphyses clavate, some cylindrical, 10-14 × 4-5 µm. Spores commonly oval, some obovate or subglobose, 7-10 × 6-8 µm, walls delicately and closely punctate, golden yellow, 0.5-0.75 µm thick.


DISTRIBUTION: Tasmania, Australia, Hong Kong, South Africa, New Caledonia.
HABITAT: On the ground, in rain forest, occasionally arising from buried wood.
ON GROUND. Queensland, Stony Creek, via Cairns; Runcorn. New South Wales, Lisarow (Lloyd 160 as Polyporus virgatus); Wentworth Falls; Bolar Creek; Barrington Tops; Sydney.

IN KEW HERBARIUM: Collections from the region are “Q., Brisbane, 730, 764, 766” filed under Amauroderma pullatus and by Cooke labelled Fomes pullatus; “Q., Trinity Bay, Karsten” filed under A. pullatus; the type ex “Tasmania, ex herb. W. Hooker” filed under A. rude together with “N.S.W., J.B.C 40” and “Vic., Melbourne, F. M. Reader, 40”; “Q., Campbell 76” under Polyporus ovinus; “Vic., Western Point, Musgrave” filed under Polyporus spiculifer; part of the type collections of P. rugatus and P. rugiceps ex “Aus., J. T. Paul” and “Vic., Jas. Wilson” respectively.

Separated from Amauroderma rugosum by the larger pores, usually larger pilei, stouter binding hyphae and smaller, differently shaped spores. The pileus surface varies appreciably in colour, markings and shape. Some pilei are almost infundibuliform, most slightly convex with concentrically sulcate and radiately rugulose markings, others may be almost plane and even. In some collections pores are 3-4 per mm, in others 1-3. Several plants both in Australia and South Africa were collected under species of Acacia.

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Created: 2008-06-10 19:13:21 06 (0600) by Ian Dodd (kk) ( Australia (kundabungkid)
Last modified: 2018-03-31 02:12:19 06 (0600) by Erlon (Herbert Baker)
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