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CONOCYBE Characters (predominantly following ARNOLDS 2005, amended on base of all species known worldwide): Basidiocarp mycenoid, rarely collybioid or tricholomatoid. Pileus hygrophanous, dry, greasy or glutinous, glabrous, pubescent or pruinose. Lamellae narrowly adnate or adnexed, sometimes free, close to distant, yellow, yellow-brown, rusty brown to fuscous brown. Stipe central, very rarely eccentric, slender, rarely stout, with equal, bulbous to distinctly radicant base. Partial veil usually absent, in some spe- cies present, fugacious or not, leaving small flocks adhering to margin of pileus, volva- like remains at base of stipe or a true membranous volva. Spore print yellow-brown, orange-brown to rusty brown, exceptionally ochre-yellow or blackish brown. Spores glabrous, very rarely nodulose or minutely to distinctly verrucose, thin- to thick-walled, generally yellow-brown to orange-brown, in some species nearly hyaline or blackish. Germ-pore present or not. Basidia clavate to suburniform, 4- or 2-spored. Clamp-con- nections present in most species. Cheilocystidia always lecythiform with thin, mostly short neck and globose capitulum. Pleurocystidia absent, except in one species. Hymenophoral trama made up of a narrow central strand of cylindrical hyphae surrounded by inflated elements. Stipitipellis a thin cutis, with clusters of lecythiform caulocystidia and/or non-lecythiform ones and long hairs. Pileipellis an epithelioid hymeniderm, made up of pyriform to spheropedunculate, in one species mixed with lageniform elements. Pileocystidia lecythiform or capilliform, sometimes absent. Development in most species paravelangiocarpic, sometimes gymnangiocarpic. Habitat on soil, litter, humus, dung and small pieces of wood, rarely on living wood, solitary or gregarious, rarely subcaespitose; usually on subneutral to basic substrates rich in nutrients. Widespread, with worldwide distribution.