Steph Jarvis’s Description of Disciseda cervina (Berk.) Hollós

Title: Monograph Of The Lycoperdaceae Of California By Steph Jarvis (Default)
Name: Disciseda cervina (Berk.) Hollós
View: public
Edit: private
Version: 3
Previous Version 

Descriptions: Create
 Monograph Of The Lycoperdaceae Of California By Steph Jarvis (Default)

Description status: Unreviewed
 (Latest review: 2019-10-20 14:46:27 CDT (-0400) by jason)

Taxonomic Classification:

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Agaricaceae

General Description:

Disciseda cervina (Berk.) Hollós, Növénytani Közlemények 1: 107. 1902.
FIGURE 19, 41, 59
Basionym: Bovista cervina Berk., Ann. Nat. Hist., Ser. 1 9: 447. 1842.
Reported synonyms:
   = Catastoma magnum Lloyd, Mycol. Writ. 5(Letter 45): 631. 1917.

TYPE—A holotype collection of Bovista cervina exists at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, collection number K-M000064223, collected by C.R. Darwin in 1842 from Rio Negro, Argentina (confirmed by Berkeley). Cunningham (1942) states that the type locality of Disciseda cervina is Europe.

Diagnostic Description:

GASTEROCARP 8-19 mm tall x 6-25 mm broad; subglobose to depressed globose or ovoid; rhizomorph of a single thin mycelium chord or absent; ostiole up to 1 mm broad, slow to develop through desiccation and thinning of the peridium layers, fine cracks appearing with minute fibrils along the margin, which separate to form a slit-like to round or irregular-shaped stoma. Exoperidium orange white (5A2) when young, becoming mousey grey (5C2-5D2), turning brownish grey (5D2), to brown (6D3-6E4) when mature, unevenly colored or mottled, some specimens taking on the soil color; cottony when young, composed of a minutely floccose to furfuraceous hyphae, encrusting soil, vegetal, and sand debris, persistent, remaining adherent to the endoperidium, thinning with age. Endoperidium white and first with uneven coloration ranging from orange white (5A2), to grayish orange (5B4), buff brown (6E4), grayish brown (6D3), dark grayish brown tones (7E5-7F3), sometimes gray purple tones (14D1) to dark brown or brick red brownish (8E7-8F7); smooth and glabrous to the naked eye, furfuraceous and cottony under dissecting scope, mostly unwrinkled, persistent and remaining through maturity, taking on the soil color. Gleba white and firm when young, becoming light tan brown (5D5), dark brown (7F5) to brick red brown (6E6); subelastic to cottony at first, becoming pulverulent in age, but remaining intact as powdery clumps. Subgleba absent. Diaphragm absent. Sand case with the rolling-over mechanism; up to 1 mm thick when young and fresh; becoming brittle, sloughing away in large sheets or patches as the gasterocarp dries, splitting apart transversely, flaking completely off except at the very base, remaining on the lower 1/3 to 1/4 of the fruitbody; persistent, often taking on the same colors as the soil.

BASIDIOSPORES globose; (3.2) 4-6.4 (7.2) X 4-6.4 µm [xmr = 5.2-5.6 X 5.1-5.5 µm, xmm = 5.4 ± 0.2 X 5.3 ± 0.3 µm, Q = 0.8-1.3, Qmr = 1.0-1.0, Qmm = 1.01 ± 0.0, n = 20, s = 2]; spores golden brown in water mounts, remaining unchanged in lactophenol cotton blue reaction; slightly asperulate to verrucose under light microscope, with SEM mature spores appear to have a dense coating of large pointed verrucose bumps connected with ridges; central oil drop present; spores thick-walled; pedicel ± 0.8 um in length, pedicels cleanly detached seen with SEM; free-floating sterigmata remnants absent from mounts; spores of various size in wet mounts. Eucapillitium Disciseda-type; 3.2-5.6 um broad, walls ± 0.8 um thick; pale brown in water mounts; extremely fragile; glabrous to sometimes incrusted with cellular debris, dichotomous branching scarce, straight to undulate or somewhat sinuous; knob-like projections absent; tips with a rounded terminus. Small round pits abundant or occasional. Septa with subseptal ramifications, disarticulating at the septum into irregular-sized fragments, and having clean breaks at the septum wall; false septa present and scarce. Paracapillitium absent. Subgleba absent. Diaphragm absent. Exoperidium a mixture of textura intricata and textura globulosa; composed of tightly interwoven hyphal threads, with cellular debris of swollen irregular-shaped cells difficult to discern. Endoperidium textura intricata; composed of thick-walled and thin-walled septate hyphal threads.


DISTRIBUTION—Known from parts of the United States, and previously reported from Arizona, California, Idaho, New Mexico, and North Dakota. Also reported from Argentina, Australia, Europe, India, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, Romania, and South America.

MATERIAL EXAMINED—CALIFORNIA, Alameda Co.: Knowland Park, open grassy field, 04 February 2009, S.S. Jarvis (SSJ 289). Contra Costa Co.: Wildcat Canyon, in bare soil sub hypogeous, 3 April 1939, V. Miller (UCB620889)(UC). Humboldt Co.: Samoa Peninsula, across from the pulp mill, scattered in moss, 30 March 1973, D. Largent (DLL 5751-2129)(HSU). Monterey Co.: Hastings Reservation, on soil surface, 2 June 1944, L. Bonar (UCB695697)(UC). San Diego Co.: Del Mar Beach, high sand cliff, 11 November 2009, R. Reidii (SSJ 296). San Francisco Co.: San Francisco Presidio, in sandy soil under Cupressus spp. (cypress), 9 November 1941, V. Miller (UCB659991)(UC). San Bernardino Co.: San Bernardino, on open ground in sandy soil, September 1940, V. Miller (UCB507198)(UC). Sonoma Co.: Pleasant Hill Road, Sebastopol, on dirt road, 24 January 2009, D. Deshazer (SSJ 338). Stanislaus Co.: Empire, Davidson Ranch, in pasture on loose soil, 30 March 1940, V. Miller (UCB637353)(UC). Trinity Co.: Lower Trinity River, 6 April 1954, L. Bonar (UCB977183)(UC). Tulare Co.: Sequoia National Park, Horse Corral Meadow, under grass in a meadow, 31 July 1945, L. Bonar (UCB695786)(UC). Tuolumne Co.: Cow Creek guard station, south of Pinecrest, 1,920 meters (6,300 feet) elev., on open ground, 9 July 1948, C.R. Quick (UCB966422)(UC); Red Hills Road and Serpentine Loop Road, BLM land, sparse grass between shrubs, 22 March 2009, S.S. Jarvis (SSJ 299). Yolo Co.: Clarksburg, Sacramento River, in sandy soil, 11 February 1939, V. Miller (UCB620843)(UC).


HABITAT—Terrestrial, growing in semi arid areas. Soil types ranging from coastal sandy soil, open grassy hillsides and meadows, prairies, montane regions, to sandy serpentine soils of the Sierra Foothills. Growing in small gregarious groups, but not fused. Among the Geographic Subdivisions of California, this species is found in the of Northwestern California, the Great Central Valley, the Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, and in Southwestern California.


The Lycoperdaceae of California, Thesis by Steph Jarvis

For images, light microscopy & Scanning Electron Microscopy:

Additional References:


COMMENTS—The Disciseda group can be confusing due to similarities among the taxa; grey endoperidium, sand case, and small stature. Disciseda cervina is distinctive by the fimbriate ostiole, occasional grayish purplish tint to the endoperidium, verrucose spores, lacking paracapillitium, and sometimes having a small pedicel on the spores. In comparison, Disciseda candida can be distinguished macroscopically by the reticulate pattern along the basal portion of the endoperidium, microscopically by the presence of paracapillitium, and lacking a pedicel on the spores. In addition, D, cervina has a dark brown to reddish brown powdery gleba when mature, whereas D. candida has a dark brown to purple brown powdery gleba when mature. Disciseda anomola, a common species in North America, but not reported from California, has a tubular ostiole with smooth to asperate spores that lack pedicels, separated from Disciseda candida and Disciseda cervina by having larger spores and a more prominent ostiole. Disciseda cervina seems more common in California than Disciseda candida. Although reported in the literature, the rolling over nature of Disciseda remains to be seen and verified by this author. The ITS data here supports this species within a Disciseda clade with 84% bootstrap and 98% PP.

Disciseda Czern., Bull. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscou 18(2, III): 153. 1845.
TYPE—Disciseda collabescens Czern. [as ‘collabascens’], Bull. Soc. Imp. nat. Moscou 18(2, III): 153. 1845.

Disciseda was erected by Czerniaiev in 1845, but his work was not well known at the time. Several species of Disciseda remained in Bovista until 1892, when Morgan segregated those with a basal sand case into a new genus, Catastoma. In 1903 Dr. L. Hollós recognized this duplication of efforts and transferred many species of Catastoma into Disciseda (Lloyd 1906). Zeller (1947) described several new species of Disciseda, transferring some of them from Catastoma, of which most of these originate from California. Catastoma means mouth down, as is the very nature from which the stoma develops in many species. On the grounds of priority, Disciseda is the oldest valid generic name.

The development of the stoma in Disciseda is a unique feature. Many mycologists (Lloyd 1903, Lohwag 1930, Coker and Couch 1928, Ahmad 1950, Mitchel et al. 1975) argue that the stoma develops as the fruitbody matures, rolls over, and is torn from a basal attachment off of a rhizomorph or mycelium tuft that remains in the substrate. Hence, the bottom becomes the top in this rolling over manner. Most species grow subhypogeous to hypogeous, and to this day little is known about the early fruitbody development of this group of fungi. This unique and very small globose to ovate puffball does not always have a basal opening. Several species develop an apical stoma in the usual manner (Coker and Couch 1928, Ahmad 1950, Mitchel et al. 1975).

However, in the case of Disciseda cervina, Ahmad (1950) surveyed hundreds of specimens and observed them in a natural setting for several days. His findings described the exoperidium sand case eroding from the base upwards until only an apical cap remained. As the fruitbody matured, the rhizomorph remained attached at the base, keeping the fruitbody in place in the soil. Ahmad reports that after ten days, the fruitbody appeared gelatinized at the base and the rhizomorph was easily pulled out leaving a pore, or stoma, in its place. The wind typically worked the fruitbody of Disciseda cervina out of its original location, rolling it over, and the bottom became the top with the new stoma at the apex. Disciseda can be collected in arid grass landscapes, in sandy dune habitats, and in areas with constant dry and windy conditions. When collecting fungi from this genus, it is important to treat each individual fruitbody as an individual collection. Terrain in which Disciseda is found may have a variety of species, making mixed collections possible.

The genus Disciseda currently has thirty-seven species that have been recorded in Index Fungorum, fourty-six including all varieties. Disciseda collabescens Czern. is the type species of the genus. There are nine species reported from California: D. atra, D. brandegeei, D. candida, D. cervina, D. levispora, D. luteola, D. subterranea, D. uplandii, D. johnstonii.

Description author: Steph Jarvis (Request Authorship Credit)
Description editor: Jason Hollinger