Public Description of Geastrum minimum Schwein.

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Name: Geastrum minimum Schwein.
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Description status: Unreviewed

Taxonomic Classification:

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Geastrales
Family: Geastraceae


Diagnostic Description:

From Ponce. (1968) (public domain):

Unexpanded basidiocarp subglobose, small, submerged; exoperidium split
to about the middle into 4-8 unequal rays, commonly recurved or
expanded or becoming fornicate by means of the mycelial layer
separating from the exoperidium in the middle but remaining attached
at the tips of the segments, the mycelial layer remaining attached to
the substratum; fleshy layer brown, rimose, frequently flaking away;
endoperidium pedicellate, 3-5 mm. diameter, obovate or depressed
globose, glabrous, farinose, or coated with glistening particles,
greyish-brown; pedicel 0.3 mm. long with an apical apophysis; mouth
delicately fimbriate (not sulcate); peristome silky-fibrillose, the
silky area generally outlined by a depressed groove; gleba
ferruginose; columella inevident; spores 4.5um , verrucose (spines
very wide); capillitium 4.5-5um diameter, fuscus brown, tapering, many
with ramifications at the ends.


Distribution:

Europe, North America, West Indies, Japan, South America, New Zealand,
and Australia.


Habitat:

Solitary or in groups on the ground in open places or in woods.


Look Alikes:

This species has been confused with Geastrum quadrifidum, under the
name Geaster fornicatus, both in Europe and America. Geastrum
quadrifidum is usually larger and has an indefinite mouth area and a
smoother surface of the endoperidium. The spores are a little larger
and the capillitium threads wider. This species is quite variable in
the way that the exoperidium expands, as sometimes it becomes revolute
and at other times is fornicate or saccate. Such revolute and
fornicate forms have been considered as distinct species, Geaster
coronatus Schroet. and Geaster minus (Pers.) Cunn., but both can be
found growing together.

A third form which is not fornicate, and which displays a short
pedicellate endoperidium, Geaster arenarius Lloyd, is also placed in
synonymy with Geasterum minimum, as the spores and capillitium are the
same.


References:

Geastrum minimum Schw. Syn. Fung. Carol. 58. 1822.
G. quadrifidum ß minus Pers. Syn. Meth. Fung. 133. 1801.
G. quadrifidum Ness. Syst. Pilze Schw. 135. 1817.
G. minus (Pers.) Cunn. Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW. 512: 81. 1926.
G. victorinii P, Ponce, Rev. Soc. Club. Bot. 3 (3) : 63. 1946.
G. dissimile Bottom. Bothalia 4: 592. 1948.
G. minimum var. fumosicollum Stanek, Fl. CSR, B-l: 435. 1958.
Geaster marginatus Vitt. Monogr. Lye. 163. 1842.
G. cesatii Rabenh. Bot. Zeit. 9: 628. 1851.
G. granulosus Fuckel, Enumerat. 41. 1860.
G. coronatus Schroet. Krypt. Fl. Schl. 3: 1889.
G. arenarius Lloyd, Geastrae 28. 1902.
G. leptospermus Atk. & Coker, Bot. Gaz. 36: 1903.
G. calceus Lloyd, Myc. Writ. 2: 311. 1907.
G. juniperinus Macbride, Myc. 4:85. 1912.


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Description editor: La Monte Henry Piggy Yarroll


Created: 2009-12-12 08:10:35 PST (-0800) by La Monte Henry Piggy Yarroll (piggy)
Last modified: 2009-12-12 08:10:35 PST (-0800) by La Monte Henry Piggy Yarroll (piggy)
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