Public Description of Panaeolus antillarum (Fr.) Dennis

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Name: Panaeolus antillarum (Fr.) Dennis
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Description status: Unreviewed

Taxonomic Classification:

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales


General Description:

Translated from Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.

Panaeolus antillarum (Fr.) Dennis in Kew Bull. 15: 124 (1960).

DESCRIPTION
PILEUS
- Cap 3-6 cm broad, convex to bell-like shape
- sticky-greasy surface completely smooth or downy when starting out
- rarely wrinkled
- without a veil remnants on the cap brim
- white or whitish, rarely pale gray
- not hygrophanous
LAMELLAE
- at first gray, then black, pied, mottled
- with bright/lighter edge
- Attached
STIPE
- 3-6 (8) inches long, white, later pale ochre
- Finely flaky, often longitudinally streaked
- Sometimes weakly rooted, narrow, hollow or plump.
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES
BASIDIA
- 4-spored
- 30-35 microns long
PILEIPELLIS
- Epicutis cells more or less cellular
- Variously sized rounded cells
SPORES
- 15-20 (21) x 10-14 × 8-10 (11) microns (neotype: 15-20 × 11-14 × 8-9.5 microns)
- smooth, opaque, distinctly flattened germ pore just sitting
- Spores are similar to the “papilionaceus type” in form and color, but are slightly larger.
SULPHIDIA
- clavate, sometimes stalked
- about 25-50 microns long
CHEILOCYSTIDIA
- colorless
- 30-45 microns long


Diagnostic Description:

- Microscopic features and average size of the spores can be used to distinguish this species from Panaeolus semiovatus var. phalaenarum.


Distribution:

- Widely distributed but thermophilic, common in the tropics and subtropics (pantropical) and possibly also in temperate zones
- Electively it appears there only in humid years (Gerhardt 1987)
- Reported from Europe: Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic / Slovakia, Africa: South Africa, Zaire, South America: Argentina, Bermuda, Brazil, Hawaii, Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, Cuba, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, Trinidad, Uruguay, North America: USA; Asia: Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Australia: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria.
- epitype (design. mihi): Trinidad


Habitat:

- On dung of various herbivores such as Horse, cattle, hippopotamus (Beeli 1928)
- Also reported from rhinoceros dung
- Growing individually or gregariously


References:

Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.


Notes:

Basionym: Agaricus antillarum Fri, Elench. audit. 1, p. 42 (1828). Iconotype: A.S. . Orsted, “22 Agaricus, Agaricus antillarum, p Crux” (UPS) epitype (design. mihi): Trinidad, Dennis B 149, 23/10/1949 “P. sepulchralis” (K).
SYNONYMS
- Agaricus antillarum var. praelonga Fr., Acta Regiae Soc. Sei. Upsaliensis 4/1(1): 25 (1851) – Iconotypus: Örsted, Tf. 22 Psilocybe antillarum var. prolonga" ©.
- Psilocybe antillarum (Fr.) Sacc, Syll. fung. 5, p. 1052 (1887). Agaricus sepulchralis Berk., London J. Bot. 1: 452 (1842) – Holotype: Indonesien, Celebes, Makassar, Berkeley 1337 (K).
- Panaeolus sepulchralis (Berk.) Sacc. sepulcralis Syll. fung. 5, p. 1119 (1887).
- Anellaria sepulchralis (Berk.) Singer, Lilloa 22: 475 (1951).
- Agaricus solidipes Peck, Annual Rep. New York State Mus. 23: 101 (1872) – Holotype: USA, West Albany, June, Peck s.n. (NY).
- Panaeolus solidipes (Peck) Sacc, Syll. audit. 5, p. 1123 (1887).
- Campanularius solidipes (Peck) Murrill, Mycologia 10: 31 (1918).
- Agaricus capnolepis Kalchbr, Grevillea. 9: 132 (1881) holotype: Brazil, Natal, Wood 337 (K).
- Hypholoma capnolepis (Kalchbr.) Sacc, Syll. audit. 5, p. 1033 (1887)
- Agaricus Fortunatus Cooke, Grevillea 9: 100 (1881) holotype: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Cooke 9150 (K).
- Psilocybe fortunata (Cooke) Sacc, Syll. audit. 5, p. 1056 (1887).
- Agaricus ovatus Cooke & Massee, Grevillea 18: 4 (1889) – lectotype (design. mihi): Australia, Victoria, Yarra, on manure, Tisdall 6 (K); syntype: 16 Tisdall (K).
- Panaeolus ovatus (Cooke & Massee) Sacc, Syll. audit. 9, p. 147 (1891). Agaricus eburneus Cooke & Massee, Grevillea 18: 4 (1889) – holotype: Australia, Queensland, Brisbane, mostly on fertil, Bailey 661 (K).
- Panaeolus eburneus (Cooke & Massee) Sacc, Syll. audit. 9, p. 147 (1891). Panaeolus albellus Massee, Bot Tidsskr. 24: 366 (1902) – holotype: Asia, Thailand, Siam, on fertil buffalo, alcohol preparation F.603 ©.
- Panaeolus bolombensis Beeli, Bull Soc. Roy. Bot Belgique 61: 96 (1928) – holotype: Africa, Zaire, Bolombo, Eala, Goossens-Fontana 325 (BR).


Description author: Christine Braaten (Request Authorship Credit)