Public Description of Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.) Maire

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Name: Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.) Maire
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Description status: Unreviewed

Taxonomic Classification:

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Psathyrellaceae


General Description:

Translated from Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.

(30) Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.: Fr.) Maire in Publ. Junta Ci. Nat. Barcelona 3(2): 109 (1939).

DESCRIPTION
PILEUS
- Cap 1-3 (4) cm wide
- hemispherical to convex shape, rarely nearly flat
- sometimes with rounded hump
- mostly bare and smooth, but also wrinkled slightly
- not greasy, margin lined when wet, translucent
- hygrophanous
- Color meat brown, gray, brown, dark brown
- Sometimes concentrically streaked, beige almost white to pale at end, in transition with darker, trolled by marginal zone (similar to Panaeolus cinctulus or P. fimicola).
LAMELLAE
- Gills attached
- ascending, moderately crowded
- Only beige brown, almost black, then brown, spotted, with lighter/sterile edge.
STIPE
- Stipe 30-80 × 1.5-3 mm, cylindrical
- narrow, hollow, frail, bent straight up
- completely frosted upward, fine flaky
- slightly lighter colored than the cap
- In the upper part sometimes almost hyaline, brownish below, drying almost whitish
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES
BASIDIA
- Basidia (1 -) 2 – to 4-spored
- About 25-30 × 10-12 microns.
PILEIPELLIS
- Epicutis cellular
- cells approximately 15-25 microns wide
SPORES
- Spores (11.5) 14-17 (22) x (7.5) 8.5-11 microns, lemon-shaped
- distinctly rough, yellow-brown, transparent
- often flattened in the microscope with large oil drops
- Germ pores often brought forward significantly, especially in 2-spored forms
SULPHIDIA
- Absent
CHEILOCYSTIDIA
- Cheilocystidia hyaline, pot-shaped bottle
- tip occasionally sold capitate,
- About 25-50 microns long.


Diagnostic Description:

- Panaeolina foenisecii differs from similar looking species of the genus Panaeolus (e.g. Panaeolus cinctulus, fimicola, olivaceus) by the dark brown (not black) spore deposit
- It is further distinguished microscopically by yellow-brown, distinctly ornamented, not completed plate
- Spores do not brighten in potassium solution
- It is difficult to separate Panaeolina foenisecii from other non-European species of the genus Panaeolina without experience: relatively small differences can be seen in the shape and size of the spores and the degree of ornamentation


Distribution:

- nearly cosmopolitan
- Europe: Germany, Denmark, Finland, France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Austria, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic / Slovakia; Africa: Zaire, South America: Argentina; North America: Puerto Rico, United States, Australia: New South Wales, South Australia.


Habitat:

- In fertilized, grassy places
- Especially in manicured lawns, but also between dune grasses in fields, on grassy roadsides, etc.
- Common especially after the grass is mowed
- Found growing Individually or gregariously


Look Alikes:

- Panaeolina foenisecii differs from similar looking species of the genus Panaeolus (e.g. Panaeolus cinctulus, fimicola, olivaceus) by the dark brown (not black) spore deposit
- It is further distinguished microscopically by yellow-brown, distinctly ornamented, not completed plate


References:

Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.


Notes:

Translated from Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.

Basionym:
- Agaricus foenisecii pers.(“Foenisicii”), Icon description, p 42 (1800), Fri, Syst mycol, p 295 (1821), lectotype (design. mihi): sn Persoon, pp. (copy “b”= 2 copies left) (L910258-609).
SYNONYMS
- Psilocybe foenisecii (Pers.: Fr.) Sources, Mem Soc. Emulsion. Montbeliard, ser. 2, 5: 147 (1872).
- Drosophila foenisecii (Pers.: Fr) Quel, Enchir.. audit., p. 117 (1886). Coprinarius foenisecii (Pers.: Fr) J.Schröt, in Cohn, Krypt.-Fl.. 3 Silesia, fungi 1, p. 565 (1889).
- Psathyra foenisecii (Pers.: Fr) G.Bertrand, Bull Soc. Mycol. France 17: 227 (1901). Panaeolus foenisecii (Pers.: Fr) Kuhner, Le Botaniste 17: 187 (1926).
- Psathyrella foenisecii (Pers.: Fr) AHSm, Mem New York Bot Gard.. 24: 32 (1972).
- Psalliota ludmilae Velen., Novit, mycol., P. 155 (1939), most Horak (1968) – holotype: Czechoslovakia, Mnichovice, Třemblaty in prato, 25.09.1935, Velenovsky (PRM 154599) (not examined).
- Panaeolus foenisecii var halophilus Bon, Bull Soc. Mycol. France 86: 117 (1970) – holotype: France, St Valery-sur-Somme, receipt 90507, 5/10/1969 (Herb. Bon). More-studied material: See index. German name: Hay fertilizer Ling, Heuschnittpilz.
TAXONOMIC NOTES
- Genus Panaeolina Maire Publ junta Ci. Nat. Barcelona 3 (2): 109 (1933). Type: Agaricus foenisecii pers. Synonyms Fr Psilocybe Fayod, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot) 7 (9): 377 (1889). Psalliotina Velen., Nom. inval., Novit, mycol., p. 155 (1939). Panaeolus subgen. Panaeolina (Maire) R.Heim, nom. nud., Les. champignons d’Europe, p. 471 (1957). Panaeolus subgen. Panaeolina (Maire) Guzman, nom. inval., in Pérez-Guzmán & Patraca, Bol. Soc. Mex. Micol. 6: 21 (1972).
- Panaeolus subgen. Panaeolina (Maire) Watling & N.M.Greg., Nom. nud., British Fungus Flora 5, p. 76 (1987). Description See delimitation of the genera Panaeolus and Panaeolina
- SINGER (1961) investigated the poorly preserved type of Agaricus foenisecii, when he found smooth spores he rejected the material as the type, as it was not consistent with the Information from PERSOON’s description. This led HORAK (1968) to the conjecture that the spore ornamentation (similar to the genus Hebeloma) due to decades of storage, could fall off. Apparently SINGER did not examine all material, as side by side glued dried and labeled (‘a – e’’) as the second piece from the left, with sliced cap (referred to as copy “b”) showed characteristics that would be typical for Panaeolina foenisecii and was therefore designated the lectotype. Specimen “a” was found to have elliptical, smooth, flattened spores 12-16.5 × 5.5-7.5 microns in size, with a clear, central germ pore. The shape of the spindle-shaped bottle-like cystidia and the characteristics of the spores that darken in potassium hydroxide solution, suggest a kind of Psathyrella. Copy “c” and “e” are likely the same Psathyrella, with spores about 13.5 to 16 × 6.5-8 microns in size. Copy “d” is Panaeolus acuminatus: spores in potassium
hydroxide brightening, smooth, distinctly flattened, with central germ pore, about 13-14 × 9-10 × 7-8 microns. PERSOON has therefore inadvertently referred to at least three different mushrooms with the name "foenisecii.” Panaeolina tends to have basidia with variable numbers (1-4) of sterigmata. Accordingly, therefore, the size of the spores is variable. Shapes with constant 4-spored basidia have spores of 12-16 microns in length; those of basidia with (1) 2 sterigmata the spores are more than 18 and can be 22 microns long. When setting the spore dimensions, it is therefore important to always pay attention to the number of sterigmata. HORAK (l968) has examined both Psalliota ludmilae Velen. and the type material for Panaeolina foenisecii and determined synonymy. VELENOVSKÝ (1939) discusses in his original habitat description of his fungus belonging to a separate genus Psalliotina: “From omnibus gracilitate, glabritie, Sporis Maximis et cystidiis aberrat certe et novum genus sistens (Psalliotinam)” However, since he described the type explicitly in Psalliota published, the genus Psalliotina was not published properly and the generic name is therefore not valid.
- BON (1970) published var halophilus is to deviate from the type by not having an exactly identical habit and preference for saline sites, however the determination was made after inspection of the holotype, that there was no need for taxonomic separation.


Description author: Christine Braaten (Request Authorship Credit)


Created: 2013-07-03 23:08:56 CDT (-0400) by Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
Last modified: 2013-07-03 23:08:56 CDT (-0400) by Christine Braaten (wintersbefore)
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