Public Description of Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.) Quél.

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Name: Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.) Quél.
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Description status: Unreviewed

Taxonomic Classification:

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales


General Description:

Translated from Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.

Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Quel. var. papilionaceus in Mem. Soc. Emul. Montbeliard, ser. 2, 5: 152 (1872).

PILEUS
- cap l-5 cm wide
- campanulate-conical form to campanulate-convex
- but also with or without papillae-like cuffs apex acuminate to rounded (=appendiculate margin?)
- pileus often bare and dull
- sometimes with contrasting mesh pattern or network raised or wrinkled, with dry conditions
- At first scurfy
- not hygrophanous or barely so
- color drab gray to charcoal gray, drab, olive-gray, flesh tones to pink or flesh-brownish
- completely plain or with colored crest, but also from the beginning almost colorless (albinoid) or by bleached out by sunlight
- margin with more or less clearly pronounced, brighter veil remnants in the form of a shaped denticles (scales) around the perimeter, this curtain around the brim often disappearing with age but is visible in young specimens with a closed rim.
ODOR/TASTE
- not described
LAMELLAE
- Gills blackish-gray
- pied, mottled
- with white edge
- attached
STIPE
- Stalk about 30-120 × 2-4 mm
- narrow
- central, frail, almost always straight
- colored like the cap
- brownish gray, finely powdered or frosted near apex
- upper part often finely lined
- completely without veil remnants
- white basal mycelium
MICROSCOPIC FEATURES
BASIDIA
- Four-spored
- about 25- 30 × 12- 15 microns
PILEIPELLIS
- not described
SPORES
- Spores (13) 15-18 (19) x (9.5) 10-12 (13) x (7) 8 – 9.5 (11) microns
- smooth, opaque
- In KOH always very dark reddish brown, flattened
- in face-view typically rectangular, with almost parallel lateral lines,
- Germ pore brought forward noticeably
SULPHIDIA
- absent
CHEILOCYSTIDIA
- colorless, often very slender but not pointed
- base slightly expanded or bulbous
- about 30-60 microns long


Diagnostic Description:

- The external form is very variable in this species, but easily recognized by the draped brim, the almost hygrophanous cap and very dark spores that are angular in face-view.
- Forms with barely recognizable veil remnants are always identifiable by the size and color of the spores.
- The lack of Sulphidia and the often slender, bent form of the Cheilocystidia are other good micro-features.
- Differs from the var parvisporus by substantially larger spores. The non-European species P. rubricaulis has Sulphidia on the lamellar surfaces and has a hygrophanous cap.
- With P. acuminatus, the veil remnants are missing, and microscopically, there are even slimmer, straighter, more pointed Cheilocystidia. Often the spores of P. acuminatus are lighter and more transparent and less angular. The cap color of acuminatus is variable, dependent on the moisture condition, zonation may be apparent.


Distribution:

DISTRIBUTION AND TYPE LOCALITY
- Lectotype (designated rnihi): Bulliard, Herb. is from France, pl 58 . Agaricus papilionaceus (1781)
- Epitype (design. mihi) is from Germany, Berlin-Grunewald, on Pferdernist, 87085 Gerhardt, 1.6 1987 (B).
- Cosmopolitan, almost everywhere the most common Panaeolus
- Europe: Germany, Belgium, Denmark, FzrBers, Finland, France, Gronland, Gro6britannien, CIS, ltaly, Yugoslavia, the Netherlands, Norwegcn, Osterreich, Sweden, Schwciz, Spanicn, Czech Republic / Siowakei, Hungary; Amcrika: Bahamian islands, Bermuda islands, Brazil, Canada, Kolumbicn, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela, Asia: lndia, Iran, Kuwait, Australia: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victona.


Habitat:

- On dung of all kinds, fertilized meadows
- gregarious, very common


References:

Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.


Notes:

Translated from Gerhardt, E. (1996). Taxonomische Revision der Gattungen Panaeolus und Panaeolina (Fungi, Agaricales, Coprinaceae). Bibliotheca Botanica 147: 1-149.

Basionym: Agaricus papilumaceus Bull., Herb. France, Tf. 58 (mit Diagnose) (1781); Fr., Syst. mycol., p.301 (1821).
SYNONYMS
- Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.: fr.) Gillet, Hymenomycetes, p. 622 (1874).
- Chalymmota papilionacea (Bull.: Fr) P.Karst, Bidrag. Kannedom Finlands Folk Nature 32: 519 (1879).
- Agaricus campanulatus Fr (non L. 1753), Syst. mycol., p. 295 (1821) – lectotype (design. rnihi): Bulliard, Herb. France, Tf 552, Figure IB, C (1792).
- Coprinarius campanulatus (Fr.) P.Kumm. (non L1753), Fuhrer Pilzk., P. 99 (1871).
- Panaeolus campanulatus (Fr.) Quel. (non L. 1753); Meme Soc. Ernul. Montbeliard, ser. 2, 5: 151 (1872).
- Panaeolus campanulatus (Fr.) Gillet (non L. 1753) Hymenomycetes, p.622 (1874).
- Chalymmota campanulata (Fr.) P.Karst. (non L. 1753), Bidrag Kannedom Finlands Folk Nature 32: 519 (1879).
- Campanularius campanulatus (Fr.) Earle (non L. 1753), Bull New York Bot Gard. 5: 434 (1909).
- Agaricus retirugis Fri, Epier. mycol syst., p. 235 (1838) Iconotypus: Batsch, Elcnch. audit., pl 18, Figure 91 Agaricus carbonarii varietas "(1786).
- Panaeolus retirugis {Fr.) Gillet, Hymenomycetes, p. 621 (1874).
- Panaeolus retirugis (Fr.) Quel., C.R. Ass franc. Av. Sci. II: 394 {1883).
- Panaeolus retirugis var elongatus Peck, Annual Rep. New York State Mus. (1896 ") 50: 130 (1898) – holotype: Essex, near Minerva, Peck s.n., July (NYS).
- Panaeolus papilionaceus (Bull.: fr.) Gillet, Hymenomycetes, p. 622 (1874).
- Agarims sphinctrinus Fri, Epicr. mycol syst., p. 235 (1836) – type? (see discussion).
- Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr.) crushing., Mem Soc. Ernul. Mombcliard, sec 2, 5: 151 (1872).
- Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr.) Gillet, Hymenomycetes, p. 621 (1874).
- Chalymmota sphinctrina (Fr.) P.Karst., Bidrag Kannedom Finlands Folk Nature 32: 518 (1879).
- Panaeolus semilanceatus Peck (non JELange 1940),
- New York State Mus. Bull 131: 37 (1909) – holotype: British America, Dawson September, 1905 (NYS).
- Panaeolus carbonarius (bass) ex Sacc., Fl. ita!. crypt., Hymenialcs, p. 875 (1916).
- Panaeolus niveus Velen., Ceske houby 3, p. 599 (1921) – Lcctotypus (Gerhardt 1986): Herb. Velenovskj,
- Dvorsky 4 1918 Alcohol missed dose GefaB No. 296/1(PRC).
- Panaeolus atratus Dvorak, Sborn. Kl Pl’irod. Brno 13: 6 (1930) – holotype: R. Dvorak 298 (ZMT).
TAXONOMIC NOTES
- The “hanging veil Panaeolus”
- References cited by Gerhardt (1996): BRESAOOLA (1928-33): Tf 892, retirugis “, 893, campanulatus”, 894, campanulatus var sphinctrinus “; C · ET TO (1987): No 1744, retirugis”; CETI’O (1988): pp. 189, sphinctrinus ", Oi \ HNCKE (1993): pp. 556, sphinctrinus “, 557, 558, 559, papilionaceus”; Gerhardt (1984a): S. 197, sphinctrinus “; LONG (1936-40): 149 pl e, retirugis”, 149 G , papilionaceus “, 150 D, campanulatus”; Menser (1977): Figure 8, campanulatus “, 13, retirugis”; MICHAEL & Hennig & GYRO (1985): No. 266, sphinctrinus “, 267, papilionaceus”, 268, retimgis “; MOSER &] OUCH (1985-93): Panaeolus 1 above” papilionacms “, below, retirugis” Panaeoltts 2 above, sphinctrinus “, Panaeolus 3 below” sphinctrinus var minor "; 0LA’H (1969): Tf 18, sphinctrinus “; PIIJLUPS (1990): pp. 181, campanulatus”, 182 ~ sphinctrinus “; rieken (1915): pl 69, 8, Campanu / atus”; COUNTRYMAN & HOLMASEN (J 992): S. 429, sphinctrinus "
- The European literature offers, according to outward appearance, several names for this fungus (see synonymy). Most such ornamentation of the pileus is perhaps often called a “retirugis” variant with a wrinkled cap. Descriptions of wrinkled cap texture can, in almost all species of the genus Panaeolus, have little taxonomic value. An example from a different genus is Bolbitius aleuriatus (= reticulatus). In this example also the form of the pileus (reticulate; “reticulates”) is no longer used for separation. Due to numerous morphological studies, Gerhardt acknowledged this one species (along with a varietal with smaller spores). At sites rich in manure, there is often found several known forms occuring simultaneously (O’bergange).
- The Type of Agaricus papilionaceus is of BULLIARD, pl 58 pre. It is of only in Fries (1821) that figures were cited, which also contain a descriptive text with the appropriate Latin name of the
species. The described habit agrees well with the pale colored Panaeolus, which also agrees with the edge of cap having hanging veil remnants. Also, from the description, it is clear that the illustrated fungus there are draped from the cap (“frange a son board ") what suggests papilionaceus so assertively. The text describes neither blueing of the flesh (BRESADOLAS interpretation, see Panaeolus cyanescens), nor of a viscid cap (interpretation of FRIES phalaenarum). Now, vague copies of the text are not necessarily the most typical manifestation of this under the provisions of the code (Article 7.2: the nomenclatural type need not to be the most typical and representative part a taxon "), however, this clearly states the case. A drawing does not allow one to see how the spores of the fungus look. A distinction for the rare, but widespread, var. parvisporus, therefore is not possible. For this reason, I propose an epitype ergo (code, paragraph 9.7), which has the traditional large spores of about 15-18 11m long.
- FRIES (1821) has the version of Agaricus campanulatus, a picture in BULLIARD, pl 552, fig. 1 quoted. This consists of two groups of fungi. The left group (A) shows z.T. ringed, light reddish brown fruitbodies, the Panaeolus are very dissimilar. Derechte part (B), the sectional drawing © included hits the habit quite well. It is therefore proposed lectotype for Panaeolus = campanulatus.
- What has FRIES (1838) understood sphinctrinus under Agaricus, was pretty straightforward. This was also the reason that authors (KONRAD & MAUBLANC 1924 -30, 1948, KOIINER & Romagnesi 1953 MOSER 1983 RICJUN 1915 SINGER 1960 and many others) used the name. Sphinctrinus repeatedly has been described as a relatively small mushroom with conical-bell-like, bald, gray to olive grey cap with hanging veil remnants. Unfortunately, the figure given by FRIES (BATTARRA 1753, pl 27 L) is not so clear. The fairly simple drawing gives the impression of being a mushroom of the genus Coprinus. In FRIES’s drawing, the typical hanging veil remnants of sphinctrinus are also not clearly visible. The Drawing (1872), pl 8, No.7 meets sphinctrinus pretty good (potential Neotype). KARSTEN (1879) in his five named in the genus Chalymmota, three species "with hanging vieil! sphinctrina, campanulata and papilionacea). In this HORAK (1968) with a specimen from the herbarium KARSTEN (Karsten 2327, 880 3.8.1, det. Karsten, campanulatus ") typified the genus Chalymmota (lecto). Ironically this specimen was misidentified and belongs to KARSTEN and is acuminatus (!), In the drawing published by HORAK there is a mixture of its own document (Horak 64/178, Figure a, i.e. = papilionaceus) and the actual Lectorype (Karsten 2327, Fig b, c = acuminatus). At the very precise drawing spores (Fig. c) also acuminatus is clearly visible. But KARSTEN has Panaeolus (i.e. not Chalymmota) The material is therefore not suitable as a lectotype for Chalymmota, (I e.). Karsten 2314, 2317, 2328-3 1, 2340, ail kept in Helsinki (H).


Description author: Christine Braaten (Request Authorship Credit)


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