Public Description of Antrodia P. Karst.

Title: Public Description
Name: Antrodia P. Karst.
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General Description:

Literature :
Spirin,V.;Vlasák,J;Niemelä,T;Miettinen,O. 2013. What is Antrodia sensu stricto?. Mycologia. 105(2):1555-1576

Page number : 1559
Remarks (internal) : As outlined here, Antrodia sensu stricto represents a small group of species with a few good characters to distinguish it from other Antrodia species. Characteristic are large, short-lived pedunculate basidia, slightly thick-walled hymenial cells and spore shape (fusiform distal end). The unique character of this group is the presence of hyphidia, sterile slender outgrowths that occasionally divide into two or three apical branches, especially common in mature or senescent hymenium. They are often difficult to find, though.
We call skeletal hyphae bending into hymenium as skeletocystidia in this paper for want of a better term. Apex of these hyphae is slightly widened, but otherwise they are not differentiated from other skeletal hyphae.
Majority of the dimitic specimens of Antrodia sensu stricto are sterile, and the sporulation period appears to be short; between sporulation the hymenium hibernates as slightly thick-walled basidioles. Fertile specimens were commonly collected in the spring as well. DNA extraction and sequencing seems to be exceptionally easy in this group, and wemanaged to sequence many over 20 year old specimens and several over 30 year old specimens with standard techniques. This is not the norm for polypores or other Antrodia spp.
Coriolellus Murrill 1905, typified by Trametes sepium (5 Antrodia favescens), is a taxonomic synonym of Antrodia sensu stricto.

Description type : Non-original description
Description : Antrodia P. Karst.
Medd. Soc. Fauna Flora Fennica 5:40, 1879.

Type species: Daedalea serpens Fr. (lectotypified by Donk 1960:186)
Other members: A. favescens, A. heteromorpha, A. macra, A. mappa, A. tanakai, plus several undescribed species from the tropics.

Resupinate to pileate brown-rot polypores with annual, white to cream basidiocarps and middle-sized to large pores (0.5-4 per mm). Hyphal system dimitic with clamped generative hyphae, nearly monomitic in one species, skeletal hyphae hyaline, fairly narrow (2.5- 4.3 µm wide), unbranched and tightly arranged, CB-, IKI-, KOH-, CRB lilac, lumen usually indistinct. Basidia clavate and large, 20-50 3 5-10 µm, slightly thickwalled and with long sterigmata. Poorly differentiated skeletocystidia (ends of skeletal hyphae penetrating hymenium), cystidioles (appearing as basidioles with a secondary hyphal outgrowth), and hyphidia present, though rare. Spores long (6.5-12 µm), cylindrical to narrow ellipsoid, with a tapering distal end. Spores are not thick-walled, but the wall is distinct.

Literature :
Ryvarden, L.; Gilbertson, R.L. 1993. European polypores. Part 1. Synopsis Fungorum. 6:1-387

Page number : 106
Remarks (public) : The genus is here emended in the same sense as in Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1986) and includes species with a dimitic hyphal system, clamped generative hyphae, and which cause a brown rot in the attacked wood. The spores vary from allantoid to oblong-ellipsoid and are negative in Melzer’s reagent. True cystidia are not present in the genus. It is of course impossible with the present knowledge to tell whether the species included here constitute a natural taxon or if convergent elements are present. This is the case with other genera of resupinate polypores as few characters are available for their delimitation and the concepts must be based partly on practical considerations. As it often may be difficult to decide the type of rot, especially in herbarium specimens with no wood present. the key also includes Diplomitoporus species with a white rot, but otherwise sharing the basic microscopical characters with Antrodia.

Antrodia albidoides David & Deq. and A. subalbidoides David & Deq. were described on the basis of differences in sexuality, one being homothallic, the other bipolar. see David and Dequatre 1985. Both are separated from A. albida by slightly narrower, uninucleate spores and distinctly tortuous skeletal hyphae.
We are uncertain as to whether the species were accepted by the authors as they were repeatedly referred to as “ultraspecies” in the text. This term is unknown in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and consequently has no rank within the taxonomic hierarchy. Further, it is a bit confusing as Antrodia albidoides on one page (David & Dequatre op. cit. p. 359) is called “sp. nov.”. while on page 361 where the Latin diagnosis is given, it is called “nov. ultraspecies”. Since this (illegitimate?) rank is used in the Latin description, we are forced to conclude that the new taxa unfortunately are not validly described on the specific level, but rather on an unspecified infraspecific level. Thus, they are not accepted in this flora on the specific level, but are treated under A. albida.

Description type : Non-original description
Description : ANTRODIA Karst. – Medd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 5:40. 1880.

Basidiocarps annual to perennial. resupinate to effused-reflexed. more rarely sessile and shelflike, mostly light coloured and tough to hard; hyphal system dimitic; generative hyphae with clamps; skeletal hyphae present. hyaline or slightly tinted in a few species, usually non-amyloid, variably amyloid in a few species; cystidia not present; small ventricose, fusoid cystidioles often present among the basidia; spores allantoid to oblong-ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, negative in Melzer’s reagent. Causing a brown rot, mostly in coniferous wood. Large cosmopolitan genus with many species.

Type species: Daedalea Serpens Fr. (Daedalea albida Fr.).

Synonyms: Amyloporia Sing. (Polyporus calceus Fr. = Polyporus xanthus Fr.) Cartilosoma Kotl. & Pouz. (Trametes subsinuosa Bres.) – Fibroporia Parm. (Polyporus vaillantii Fr.).

Literature :
Ryvarden, L.; Johansen, I. 1980. A preliminary polypore flora of East Africa. :1-636

Page number : 246
Remarks (public) : To me it is logical to follow Donk (Persoonia 1:186, 1960) and accept A. serpens as the type. This was the only species Karsten himself left in the genus when he reintroduced it (Bidr. Kann. Finl. Nat. Folk 48:323, 1889) after having for a time (Ibid. 37:63, 1882) placed it in synonymy with Physisporus Chev.

The genus is here emended in a fairly wide sense to include mostly resupinate dimitic species with clamped generative hyphae and hyaline skeletal hyphae, cystidia are absent and the spores are hyaline, thin-walled, smooth and non-amyloid. Other mycologists may want to restrict the genus, and a survey of some of the other genera proposed to include species here placed in Antrodia can be found in Domanski (1972), Niemelä (1978) and Ryvarden (1976-78).
Description type : Non-original description
Description : ANTRODIA Karst.
Medd. Soc. Fauna F1. Flenn. 5:40, 1880 (preprint 1879)

Fruitbodies annual, more rarely perennial, mostly resupinate, more rarely pileate, light coloured, white, cream to tan-coloured, hyphal system dimitic, generative hyphae thinwalled, hyaline and with clamps at the septa, skeletal hyphae thick-walled to solid, hyaline, mostly non-amyloid, rarely with a weak and variable amyloid reaction, spores cylindrical, allantoid to oblong ellipsoid, hyaline, thinwalled, smooth and non-amyloid.
Type species: Antrodia serpens (Fr.) Karst. (type examined).

Description author: Erlon (Request Authorship Credit)

Created: 2015-03-09 16:34:28 CST (-0600) by Erlon (Herbert Baker)
Last modified: 2015-03-09 16:34:28 CST (-0600) by Erlon (Herbert Baker)
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