When: 2008-09-16

Collection location: Japan [Click for map]

Who: forestwander

No specimen available

I could see these from a distance. What a day! I was so happy to see these beautiful specimens.


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THANK YOU!! what a thorough answer…
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2008-09-17 09:49:18 PDT (-0700)

…the only disturbing part of your post, Rod, was that these were being offered for sale at a market in china. edible lepidellas??! the horror!

You agree it’s in sect. Lepidella, so then…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2008-09-16 21:13:31 PDT (-0700)

Open your copy of Bas’ 1969 monograph (THE BOOK) to page 434…

Here we find, at the lowest taxonomic level, Bas has included A. virgineoides in a small group of two species. The group is called “stirps Virgineoides.” Amanita virgineoides is distinguished by having smaller spores, a considerably larger and more robust fruiting body, rings of warts on the lower stipe and bulb instead of rows of recurved scales, and having a roughly clavate bulb rather than a slender (often twisting) rooting bulb.

Going back up a level, stirps Virgineoides is included in subsect.
Solitariae Bas. The key entries that distinguish stirps Virgineoides are as follows:

- Basidia bear clamp connections

- Spores rarely cylindrical; average Q rarely up to 2.2

- Remnants of volva on pileus consisting of rather abundant to abundant
hyphae intermixed with abundant inflated cells

- Colored latex absent

- Remnants of volva consisting of irregularly disposed, inflated cells
intermixed with relatively abundant hyphae

- Volva forming distinct conical warts on cap

- Volval warts on cap small to medium sized, white and detersile.

Working up to the sectional level, we now need to see how one reaches subsect. Solitariae in the sectional key. Here it is:

- Volva consisting of variiform elements, but rows (read “chains”) of large
cylindrical, elongate-fusiform, and slenderly clavate cells never
dominant. Stem usually with bulbous base and remnants of volva concentrated below.

- Volva not membranous, never forming a limb at base of stem, never forming
patches on cap having outer layer mainly consisting of repent hyphae.
Rarely bulb of stem marginate and then volva floccose or forming conical
warts, at least at center of cap. Microscopical elements of volva on
cap in parallel-erect position or irregularly disposed.

That’s it. You can see that Bas relied a great deal on the anatomy of the volva and the presence or absence of clamps at the bases of basidia. It is notable that a basketful of Amanita virgineoides was photographed in a market in SW China by Dr. Yang or one of his students (Amanita Studies species page for the present species).

Very best,


how is this lep different from all other leps?
By: Debbie Viess (amanitarita)
2008-09-16 19:17:59 PDT (-0700)

they are certainly stunning; what makes them unique?

Yes, it’s a beautiful collection.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2008-09-16 14:37:27 PDT (-0700)

I particularly like the photograph showing the warted covering of the underside of the partial veil.


Created: 2008-09-16 01:57:15 PDT (-0700)
Last modified: 2008-09-16 01:57:15 PDT (-0700)
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