A single specimen growing under pitch pine and scrub oak.


After the rain, the cap was viscid & slimy
Brown stains on the volval sack were already there prior to collecting

Proposed Names

27% (2)
Recognized by sight
3% (2)
Based on chemical features: nrITS sequence obtained.

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Your additional fulvoid has our herbarium no. 751-3.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-02-01 13:41:06 CST (-0500)

It has not been sampled for sequencing at this time. We will try to take care of that relatively soon.

Amanita sp-amerifulva02 is currently known only from three or four counties of Pennsylvania and from collections of Linas for which I have to check the geography.

Amanita sp-amerifulva01 (which has been mistaken at least once for a croceiod amanita) is currently known from New Jersey in Burlington, Cape May, and Monmouth Cos. It is not yet determined from other sites definitively. However, that my change today as I am presently working on sequences produced from Linas’ over about the last ten or more shipments. All the fulva and fulvoid data are being reviewed and assigned to what appear to be solid clades.

Very best,


Northeastern fulvoids
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2019-01-31 19:09:19 CST (-0500)

So, basically, Rod, so far the “fulvoid group” in the east include fulva, carolinensis, and whatever cryptic members currently logged under “amerifulva01” & “amerifulva02”.
Correct me if I am wrong in my assumption that telling all these taxa apart with confidence in the field is not easy, to say the least. So, if we find a fulvoid grisette above the Mason-Dixon Line, fulva is the best bet — yes or no?

I found one more fulvoid of mine from the Pine Barrens: obs 260824. You already have it. I think it’s the last one, but I could be wrong again. :-)

Thanks for checking the history of fulva in the Pine Barrens in your experience, Igor.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-01-31 09:56:02 CST (-0500)

RET 785-6 is the Roosevelt herbarium accession no. for the MO voucher that you cited. A quick check shows that it is not on the list for sequencing at present.

Very best,


We are going through the process of posting in GenBank all the sequences that…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-01-31 09:49:18 CST (-0500)

were previously called either fulva or daimonioctantes. There is quite a bit of work for Mary and I to do with regard to getting just the nrITS and nrLSU results out in public.

It will be very interesting to see what is in the backlog for Amanita fulva.

As I said in my comment to Igor, it seems that there are other fulvoids and that they become more common as one proceeds southward. The true fulva is definitely as far south as Tennessee, but those collections have been in the Smoky Mountains so far.

We know that A. carolinensis was originally thought to be fulva.

We have at least two more candidates vying for the name amerifulva.

There are “__sp-M15__” in Mexico and nishidae in the southwest US.

So there is more work to be done on fulvoids in eastern North America.

Very best,


By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2019-01-30 23:28:58 CST (-0500)

Yes, I agree. This one had a thick (“armored”) volva and the overall “feel” of a more substantial mushroom than the average fulva. The typical A. fulva I am used to seeing is perhaps represented by obs 279957.

Thank you, Rod…
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2019-01-30 23:23:48 CST (-0500)

…for the clarification. So all the fulvoids are housed in series Fulvae, right?
As far as A. fulva being rare in the Pine Barrens, I just suddenly recalled another one — obs 255397, which is in your possession. There might be others, and I will look for them when I have time…

Very interesting news!
By: Logan Wiedenfeld (LoganW)
2019-01-30 23:04:08 CST (-0500)

I wonder if the fulvoid taxon I encounter in south Louisiana is also the classic species. It seems like your collection has a thicker volva than what I’m used to seeing.

To try again…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-01-30 22:55:13 CST (-0500)

I am reserving amerifulva for what I think are the minority fulvoids in eastern North America. Everything else seem to be fulva. Amanita daimonioctantes is done with. We can demonstrate no genetic difference in nrITS, nrLSU, or RPB2. Maybe someone will go farther someday.

This is what we have now.

Very best,


It is all one species.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-01-30 22:50:26 CST (-0500)

I just kept the collections on two different pages because it would be a terrible pain and a lot of time to combine them. There are still other fulvoids in North America. But they are represented by less than ten collections each in the herbarium. Amanita fulva is represented by dozens of collections. And I have left many, many more in the field. In eastern North America, the Canadian portion has fulva very dominant among the fulvoids. As you go southward, the other taxa start to appear. The most distinctive in the field is probably A. carolinensis.

Very best,


Thank you for sharing the news, Rod
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2019-01-30 20:38:32 CST (-0500)

Is this the Eurasian fulva or amerifulva?
I am a bit disappointed in this being a rather common species, yet at the same time a bit surprised because I cannot recall ever collecting a “fulvoid” species in the Pine Barrens. The rusty stains on the volva are suggestive of the “fulva group” though…
I was hoping for a new taxon that would bear the name of the brave Mexican aviator who lost his life in the skies of NJ. The amanita was found less than 100 yards to the SE from the crash site… Oh well, I’ll keep looking.
Yes, I was aware of abandonment of daimonioctantes
Of course, you are more than welcome to use these or any other pictures of mine for your purposes. :-)

An nrITS sequence has been derived from the voucher of this collection.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2019-01-30 18:33:21 CST (-0500)

The sequencing of this specimen has resulted in a determination of A. fulva.

We will certainly want to use th lovely photos on the WAO website to demonstrate the color range of Amanita fulva in North America. If you haven’t noticed daimonioctantes has been abandoned as superfluous and has been recognized as a North American population of A. fulva rather than a distinct species. An nrITS sequence for the voucher material of this collection is being prepared for submission to GenBank in the near future.

Thanks for sharing your material with us.

Very best,


Sampled for DNA sequencing today.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-05-18 14:27:05 CDT (-0400)

Thanks, Igor.


You are a good sport, Igor.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-03-02 13:28:46 CST (-0500)

Your patience is appreciated.

I’m doing my best.


Thank you, Rod,
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2018-03-02 13:07:23 CST (-0500)

for the update. Looking forward toward future results. I always do. :-)
Like obs 108462, this mushrooms was found on the shoulder of a paved road, except that the collection site of 113909 is 5 miles to the SW of where “sp-60” was found. I haven’t visited this part of WSF since 2015 or ’16, so it would be nice to go back to look for this and other “critters”.

It will be sequenced. I’ve moved it up in the priority listing for sequencing.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2018-03-02 09:24:28 CST (-0500)

We now have over 8,000 collections in the herbarium. So I am trying to develop prioritization of specimens not yet in the queue of samples being passed to labs for molecular work.

I’m grateful for the constructive interactions that I get from persons such as yourself.

Very best,


So, Rod, one can infer from…
By: I. G. Safonov (IGSafonov)
2017-04-17 18:17:15 CDT (-0400)

…your comment that 113909 stands a good chance of being sequenced eventually. :-)
The umbo/knob looks quite prominent to my eyes, but it’s a relative assessment with no reference point. Sometimes color contrast makes all the difference. Here there is practically no color gradient and the flash is on in some pix, so the umbo may look smaller. On the other hand, lots of color contrast may increase the emphasis to a certain structure.

On the other hand, the umbo is not so prominent.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2017-04-17 17:41:05 CDT (-0400)

We have never sampled this material. We are in the process of going back in time in the herbarium looking for collections of Vaginatae that have not been sequenced. There are a lot, I think. We recently sequenced some old collections of Sam Ristich’s from Maine and found many of them were new taxa. My next project is to start going backwards through the herbarium collections that do not have the word “sample” or “sampled” on the label. Its going to make our backlog truly amazing. I will begin to eliminate some species from sequencing to try to keep the size of my “problem” down, while leaving me a good chance of continuing to find new taxa associated with notes and photographs.

Very best,


Yes, Igor. This could be a fresh specimen of MO 108462. I see your point.
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2017-04-17 17:34:00 CDT (-0400)


Thanks Igor,
By: groundhog
2013-08-14 11:42:18 CDT (-0400)

This material has been accessioned into Rod’s herbarium.
-Naomi (working with RET)

A real beauty…
By: R. E. Tulloss (ret)
2012-10-20 05:34:29 CDT (-0400)